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way, we can direct attention to a specific part of a skill while performing the whole skill. Results provide evidence that attention -directing instruction can serve to establish a part practice environment while allowing the person to practice the whole skill. ■ex. a group of participants playing a video game, and some were given attention directing instructions while a control group was given no information. the control group showed improvement however, not as much as the groups who received additional instruction.Chapter 19●(A) Define mental practice. (B) Describe three ways in which a person can engage in mental practice.○Mental Practice - active cognitive or mental rehearsal of a skill, where a person may think about the cognitive or procedural aspects of a motor skill or engage in visual or kinestetic imagery the performance of a skill or part of a skill.■A person observes another person live■Observes another person or themselves on film or video■OR can occur without any visual observation at all●Describe an example of how you would implement mental practice procedures to aid the learning of a new skill.○Although physical practice is better than mental practice, mental practice is better than no practice at all. Therefore, mental practice in conjunction with physical practice would be considered an effective means in aiding skill acquisition because cognitive problem solving activity is an important characteristic for optimizing skill acquisition. Mental practice establishes a learning condition that invokes these beneficial conditions.●Describe an example of how you would implement a mental practice strategy to aid your preparation to perform a well-learned skill.There are two types of imagery related to motor skill performance. Motivational imagery and cognitive imagery. Motivational imagery which can be specific, general mastery, or general arousal and Cognitive which can be specific or General.Motivational Imagerya) specific- represents specific goals and goal orienting behaviors (ex. Winning a medal)b)General Mastery- represents effective coping and mastery of challenging situations (ex.
Confidence, focus)c) general Arousal-represents feelings of relaxation, stress, arousal, and anxiety in a situation (ex. Being relaxed prior to an event)Cognitive Imagerya) specific-imagery of performing specific skills (ex. Performing a golf shot)b) General- imagery of strategies related to an event (ex. Strategy to overcome a full-court press in basketball)●What are three reasons researchers have proposed to explain why mental practice aids motor skill learning and performance?○the neuromuscular hypothesis is based on research evidence showing EMG recordigs in muscles that would be involved in teh actual physical performance○The brain activity hypothesis propses that similar brain regions are activated during imagining of a movement and the physical execution of the movement. Evidence from research involving brain imaging techniques supports this hypothesis.