What organelles do sperm lack and why endoplasmic

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What organelles do sperm lack and why?Endoplasmic ReticulumGolgi apparatusLysosomes and Peroxisomes2 steps of capacitation:Capacitation = process of actually activating an eggLack so that they can be lightweight andmove more efficiently; only needs nucleusto carry DNA to attach with egg
Step 1: spermatozoa become motile: when mixed with secretions of seminal glandsStep 2: spermatozoa become capable of fertilization: when exposed to female reproductive tract3 glands that secrete semen:Four MAJOR functions of Male Glands:Activating spermatozoa (become motile)Providing nutrients spermatozoa needed for motilityPropelling spermatozoa and fluids along reproductive tractProducing buffers to counteract acidity of urethral and vaginal environmentsSeminal Glands (seminal vesicles):Extremely active secretory glandsProduce about 60% of semen volumeSeminal fluid: same osmotic concentration as blood plasma but DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONHigh concentrations of fructose: easily metabolized by spermatozoaProstaglandins: stimulate smooth muscle contractions (male and female) for sperm motilitySlightly alkaline: neutralize acids in prostate gland and vaginaInitiates first step in capacitationDischarged into ejaculatory duct at emission (when peristaltic contractions are underway in vasdeferens, seminal glands, and prostate gland; controlled by sympathetic nervous system)Prostate Gland: encircles proximal portion of urethra, below urinary bladderProstatic Fluid:Slightly acidic, milky
Forms 25% of semen volumeCitric acid for ATP production (Krebs)Contains antibiotic semininalplasmin (helps prevent UTI in males)Bulbourethral Gland:Located at base of penisSecrete thick, alkaline mucusHelps neutralize urinary acids in urethraLubricates the glans (penis tip), helps protect sperm from damage during ejaculationPre-cum: usually contains no sperm, however depends on individualHormone functionHypothalamus secretes GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE (GnRH)GnRH INDUCES anterior pituitary secrete:Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): acts on nurse cell (seminiferous tubules)Promote spermatogenesis and spermiogenesisLuteinizing Hormone (LH): acts on LEYDID CELLS and testosterone released in response to LHInhibin: inhibits FSH production and suppresses secretion of GnRHRate of spermatogenesis is regulated by negative feedback involving:GnRH, FSH, and inhibinAs spermatogenesis accelerates, inhibin secretion increasesTo ensure developing sperm have enough time to mature before the next group begins development
5.Female Reproductive SystemProcess of oogenesis with chromosome numbers and type of oocyteKnow which type of follicle is housing which type of oocytePhases- ovarian cycle (follicular and luteal phases) and uterine cycle (proliferative and secretory phase), match phasesOvulation, corpus luteum, corona radiata

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Term
Fall
Professor
DR.HENRY
Tags
Physiology, Anatomy, Mitosis, Mitosis And Meiosis, Sperm, Thyroid stimulating hormone

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