Earl warren was appointed as a justice to the supreme

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Earl Warren was appointed as a Justice to the Supreme Court in 1953 and he made many controversial rulings:Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) struck down a state law that banned the use of contraceptives, even by married couples, creating a "right to privacy."Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) ruled that all criminals were entitled to legal counsel, even ifthey were unable to afford it.Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966) ruled that those who were arrested had to the "right to remain silent." (Miranda warning)Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township vs. Schempp (1963) ruled that public schools could not require prayers or Bible reading.Reynolds vs. Sims (1964) ruled that the state legislatures would be required to be reapportioned according to population.In an attempt to end the liberal rulings, President Nixon set Warren E. Burger to replace the retiring Earl Warren in 1969. The Supreme Court had four new Nixon-appointed members by the end of 1971.Nixon on the Home FrontNixon expanded the Great Society programs by increasing funding for Medicare, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children(AFDC). He also created the Supplemental Security Income (SSI), giving benefits to the poor aged, blind, and disabled.Nixon's Philadelphia Plan of 1969 required construction-trade unions to establish quotas for hiring black employees. This plan changed the definition of "affirmative action" to include preferable treatment on groups, not individuals; the Supreme Court's ruling on Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971) upheld this. Whites protested this decision, calling it "reverse discrimination."Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OHSA), and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). These agencies gave the federal government more control over businesses.In 1962, Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring exposed the harmful effects of pesticides.The Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Endangered Species Act of 1973 both aimed at protecting and preserving the environment.Worried about inflation, Nixon imposed a 90-day wage freeze and then took the nation off the gold standard (devaluing the dollar). This ended the "Bretton Woods" system of international currency stabilization, which was the agreement that each country would tieits monetary exchange rate to gold.Nixon's southern strategy helped him win the Southern vote. This strategy consisted of opposing civil rights for African-Americans.The Nixon Landslide of 1972In the spring of 1972, the North Vietnamese burst through the demilitarized zone separating the two Vietnams. Nixon ordered massive bombing attacks on strategic centers, halting the North Vietnamese offensive.Senator George McGovern won the 1972 Democratic nomination. He based his
campaign on pulling out of Vietnam in 90 days. President Nixon, though, won the election of 1972 in a landslide.

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