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Korematsu was not excluded from the Military Area because of hostility to him or his race. He was excluded because we are at war with the Japanese Empire, because the . . . military authorities feared an invasion of our West Coast and . . . because they decided that the military urgency of the situation demanded that all citizens of Japanese ancestry be segregated from the West Coast temporarily, and, finally, because Congress . . . determined that our military leaders should have the power to do just this. Source: Chief Justice Hugo Black, Korematsu v. United States, 1944. Vocabulary aggregation: sum compulsory: mandatory commensurate: in proportion
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document E: Personal Justice Denied In 1980, Congress established the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians to investigate the detention program and the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. The Commission released its report Personal Justice Denied: The Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, on February 24, 1983. The passage below is an excerpt from this report. The Commission held 20 days of hearings in cities across the country, particularly on the West Coast, hearing testimony from more than 750 witnesses: evacuees, former government officials, public figures, interested citizens, and historians and other professionals who have studied the subjects of Commission inquiry. An extensive effort was made to locate and to review the records of government action and to analyze other sources of information including contemporary writings, personal accounts and historical analyses. . . . Executive Order 9066 was not justified by military necessity, and the decisions which followed from it—detention, ending detention and ending exclusion—were not driven by analysis of military conditions. The broad historical causes which shaped these decisions were race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership. Widespread ignorance of Japanese Americans contributed to a policy conceived in haste and executed in an atmosphere of fear and anger at Japan. A grave injustice was done to American citizens and resident aliens of Japanese ancestry who, without individual review or any . . . evidence against them, were excluded, removed and detained by the United States during World War II. Source:Personal Justice Denied: The Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, February 24, 1983.
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Name__________________ Why were Japanese Americans interned during WWII? Round One Document Reasons for internment suggested by this documentEvidence from document to support these reasonsGovernment Newsreel Date: _________Hypothesis 1: Why were Japanese Americans interned during World War II? Round Two Document Reasons for internment suggested by this documentEvidence from document to support these reasonsThe Munson Report Date: _________The CrisisArticle Date: _________
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Hypothesis 2: Why were Japanese Americans interned during World War II? Why were Japanese Americans interned during WWII? Round Three DocumentReasons for internment suggested by this documentEvidence from document to support these reasonsKorematsu v. United States Date: _________Personal Justice DeniedDate: _________
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Final Hypothesis: Why were Japanese Americans interned during World War II?