there is a perceived power difference between the institution conducting the research and the research subjects. Academic research provides an illustration of this power difference. A professor may require students to participate as research subjects in a study regarding sex and advertising. Some students may view such a study as hostile environment sexual harassment. Yet, the power and authority of the professor may cause reluctant students to keep silent.Organizations that either commission or conduct business research have a responsibility to conduct and report such research in an unbiased manner. An organization that conducts research on its own products may influence the design, execution, and reported results of a study. For example, Merck and Company, Inc. had to withdraw its pain reliever Vioxx because of potentially dangerous side effects. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration TABLE 2.2 Steps in the Development of a Code of StandardsGet everyone involvedEmployees will feel more ownership if they help craft the document. Other shareholders such as customers and vendors can also add valuable insight.Decide whether to do the job in-house or outsource to a consultantIf the firm lacks the knowledge and expertise necessary to write a code of standards, a consultant may be helpful. The consultant’s role, however, is just that—to consult. The firm still needs to take ownership of the document.Make sure the standards apply to everyone in the organizationA code of standards is ineffective if anyone in the organization is held to a different criterion. This is especially true if senior executives are allowed to engage in behavior for which other employees would be sanctioned.Avoid legaleseKeep the firm’s code of standards in simple language, easily understood by those who will implement it.PublicizePublicize the code of standards on the firm’s Web page, in brochures and in sales presentations. Publication aides in implementation, provides good publicity, and builds pride among employees.Provide trainingEmployees, subcontractors, and others should not be held to standards of behavior of which they are not aware. Hold regular training on the code of standards and make sure all new hires understand the conduct expected.Implement and follow-upMake sure all supervisory personnel are implementing the new plan. At the same time, gather feedback from employees and other stakeholders and make necessary adjustments. It is a good idea to have a regular time frame (e.g., annually) to revise the standards to keep up with changing conditions and technology.EnforcementHave procedures in place to sanction those who violate the standards. Apply the concepts of procedural and distributive justice to the enforcement process.