Lecture4-SelectiveAttention.pptx

In the same category condition target and distractors

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In the “same-category” condition, target and distractors are both letters . In the “diferent-category” condition, the target is a number while the distractors are letters . Frame size per slide could vary between two and four characters. Target 53 Frames Same-category condition Diferent-category condition Shifrin & Schneider’s Paradigm for Studying Controlled Versus Automatic Allocation of Attention
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Shifrin and Schneider also conducted the following variant of the previous experiment: The target always came from one set of letters: (B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L) Distractors always came from another set of letters” (Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z) After 2100 trials, participants were at the same levels of performance as in the “diferent-category” condition of the previous experiment, demonstrating that controlled processes can become automatic with enough practice. 54
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Transforming a controlled process (requiring attention) to an automatic one (not requiring attention) through practice is often desirable - automatic processes use fewer perceptual, cognitive, and motor resources, and therefore we can focus our attention elsewhere – but there is a downside... 55
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Example of the Stroop Efect 56
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BLUE BLUE GREEN GREEN RED ORANGE TABLE 57 Example of the Stroop Efect
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Can our ability to attend selectively to locations and objects in our environment become impaired or damaged? The right parietal lobe appears especially critical in the shifting of attention 58
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A Patient With Neglect of Left Visual Field 59
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Impaired Attention Shifting in Individuals With Right Parietal Lobe Damage Experimental Paradigm: 1. Cue participants to the location of a target (either left or right) 2. Most of the time (e.g., 90%), the target actually appears where the cue was (participants judge whether the cue has certain physical characteristics). 3. On select trials (e.g., 10%), the target appears at the non-cued location (e.g., participant cued to the left visual field, but target appears on right). 4. Time to shift attention to uncued location is measured. 60
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Impaired Attention Shifting in Individuals With Right Parietal Lobe Damage Field of Presentation Left Right 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 Time to Attend (milliseconds) Cued for right field Cued for left field 1 2 3 4 61
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Damage to the parietal lobe in one side of the brain (e.g., right) seems to make it exceedingly difficult for the individual to shift attention to the visual field on the opposite side (e.g., left) when an unexpected stimulus draws attention to itself. 62
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