Z gentrification government and revitalization

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z Gentrification Government and Revitalization Postwar years federal government sponsored urban clearance & renewal Recently urban gentrification funded almost entirely by private sector Municipal governments overwhelmingly support gentrification - brings more affluent taxpayers
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z Who is Gentrifying? Gentrifiers - “urban stayers” (not “urban in-movers”) Generally young or middle-aged adults, childless, white, urban-bred, well-educated, etc. (DINKS – duel income, no kids)
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z Why is Gentrification Taking Place? Demographic Changes Decline in marriage, later age at marriage, increases in unmarried couples, declines in the number of young children per family, more working women, gay households All factors represent a decline of the sort of “familism” that drove postwar flight to the suburbs
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z Economic Changes Commuting & utilities are expensive Revitalizing existing city housing can be less expensive than new construction on suburban periphery
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z Lifestyle Choices Urban living is “in” – hip lifestyle with cultural & social activities Urbanites without children – no worry about schools Older restored houses more desirable
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z Displacement of the Poor Those displaced are most often low-income renters Low-income renters as a group have high residential mobility Elderly property owners do face higher property assessments - but higher land values
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z Decline of middle-income neighborhoods Middle-income neighborhoods shrinking US middle-income neighborhoods made up six out of ten of all metro neighborhoods in 1970, they made up only four out of ten in 2000 Rising income inequality led to rising income segregation – loss of middle-class Neighborhoods becoming more economically homogenous
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z Successful working-class revival Is it possible for cities to provide decent housing for low-income working-class residents? NYC - quiet revolution, building 100,000 new residences between 1990–2010 in most devastated areas of city
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