Clinical note Burns Tissue damage caused by heat electricity radiation

Clinical note burns tissue damage caused by heat

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Clinical note •Burns: Tissue damage caused by heat, electricity, radiation, chemicals. •First concern: Amount of blood volume lost, if any has been restored, moisture. •Second concern: Infection, difficult to treat since the infection can go in the blood. •To evaluate burns, the rule of nines is used; -Body is broken into 11 sections, with each section representing 9% of body surface (except genitals, which account for 1%). -Used to estimate volume of fluid loss. •First degree: Only epidermis damaged. •Second degree: Epidermis and upper dermis. •Third degree: Entire thickness of skin (epidermis and all of dermis). •Potential for repair: Complicated process, have to get rid of all the burned tissue, has to have skin available on the body to replace the damaged tissue. •What can be done: Autograph, skin graph (get someone else’s skin) however, the body may reject the skin. •Big concern of skin graph: Scar tissue forming, causing restricted movement. 9
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Clinical note •Skin cancer; -Most skin tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread (metastasize). -Risk factors: Overexposure to UV radiation, frequent irritation of skin. •Basal cell carcinoma; -Least malignant, most common. -Stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis, cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases. -Slow process and does not spread. •Squamous cell carcinoma; -Second most common. -Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands, good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically. •Melanoma; -Most dangerous. -Involves melanocytes, highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. -Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy. ABCD rule; -Asymmetry: The2 sides of the pigmented spot do not match. -Border irregularity: The borders of the lesion exhibit indentations. -Color: The pigmented spot contains several colours. -Diameter: The spot is larger than 6mm in diameter. 10
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Anatomy of the skeletal system Bones and skeletal tissues Cartilage •Features between dense CT and bone, tough but flexible. •All types are made up of chondrocytes, cells encased in small cavities (lacunae) within jelly-like extracellular matrix. -Collagen fibers (can have some elastic fibers). •Up to 80% water. •Avascular, lack of nerve fibers; key factor, if the cartilage tears, it will not repair easily and might need surgery. •Perichondrium: Layer of dense connective tissue surrounding cartilage like a girdle. Contain blood vessels that gives nutrients to the cartilage. •In damaged areas, perichondrium can form scar tissue because poorly vascularized cartilage repairs badly. •Chondroblast: High MR; immature cartilage cells, cells can still divide., actively from cartilage. •Mechanisms of growth; -Interstitial: The lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from the within.
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