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Ongoing War: In September 1978, President Carter hosted Israeli Prime MinisterMenachim Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadatat a summit conference aDavid outside Washington, D.C. The Camp David Accordsoffered Palestinians fiof limited autonomy and paved the way for further talks. Seven months later, Be
Big IdeasWhat I learnedSadat signed an agreement for Israel's gradual withdrawal from Sinai. The Palestine Liberation Organization(PLO) assumed the role of a Palestinian govwith Yasser Arafatat its head. Arafat militated for a Palestinian state, which eara reputation as a terrorist. More Jewish settlements pushed Palestinians to the limbeyond. During the Intifadaof 1987–88, armed Palestinians attacked Israeli setPalestinians were, in turn, violently suppressed by Israeli forces. In 1988, Arafat tassembled United Nations that he was willing to recognize the state of Israel andnegotiate for peace. The Israelis refused to negotiate with the PLO.What were the causes and effects of Indian independence?Many Indians were frustrated and angered by Great Britain’s colonial domand rule, and many independence movements were stirring in many Europcolonies, as Algeria was granted independence by France in 1962. The Indian independence movement started a group of committed intellecAnd activists led by Mohandas K. Gandhi.Great Britain granted independence to India in 1947Gandhi had always wanted all of India united nation. In contrast, many Muslim and Hindu nationalists wanted separate nations,Muslims who wanted to live in an independent Muslim state could migratePakistan. Hindus who preferred to live in a Hindu state could stay in India. who happened to live in the soon-to-be Pakistan could migrate to Hindu InLong-simmering ethnic and religious hatred erupted. At least one million pdied during the mass migration between the two nations. Atrocities were committed on both sidesIn 1948, a Hindu extremist shot and killed Gandhi.Who are some of the key figures in nationalist movements aroundthe world?Mohandas GandhiGandhi's willingness to suffer physical punishment at the hands of the British, anabsolute refusal to retaliate in kind, inspired the Indian people. Led by Gandhi, threalized that moral force could defeat physical force, and they acted accordingly.became known as Mahatma (great soul). He organized boycotts, general strikes, other nonviolent actions to defy British rule. Perhaps his greatest triumph was theMarch to the sea, where he and thousands of his followers made salt from seawaoppose the British salt tax. Significance:The nonviolent protests led by Gandhi strongly influenced Great Bdecision to grant independence to India in 1947.
Big IdeasWhat I learnedJawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru was a leader of the Indian independence movement and a closeassociate of Gandhi. He became the first president of independent India. In this 1photograph, he inspects a windshield that was smashed by rock thrown by a protNehru was riding in the vehicle at the time of the attack.