Darwin explained 3 broad observations 1 the unity of

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Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 3.25
Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Howell
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Darwin explained 3 broad observations1.The unity of life 2.The diversity of life 3.The match between organisms and their environment About his essay of natural selectionoA process in which individuals with favourable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce Descent with ModificationDescent: related Darwin never used the word “evolution” in the first edition of Origin of SpeciesThe phrase descendant with modificationsummarized Darwin’s perception of the unity of life It refers to the view that all organisms are related through descent from ancestors that lived in the pastA tree, first phylogenetic treeEx) Elephants o3 different species not 2 oAsian, African, and African (Savannah/most press)Artificial SelectionHumans have modified other species by selection and breeding individuals with desired traits
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Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 3.25
Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Howell
Expert Verified
He made 2 inferences from two observationsObservation 1:oVariation inherited traits Observation 2:oOverproduction of offspring:More than environment can handle Inference #1: oIndividuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals Inference #2:oThe unequal ability of individuals If some inheritable traits are advantageous, these will accumulate in population over time, and this will increase the frequency of individuals with these traits 4 Key Points in Natural SelectionCharacteristics may vary Variation must be heritable More offspring produced than survive Characters confer differential survival/reproduction benefit Variation + heritable + differential survival = Natural Selection Natural Selection SummaryIndividuals with heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals Natural selection increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment over time If an environment changed over time, natural selection may result in adaptation to the new conditions, which may give rise to new speciesIndividuals DO NOT evolve; populations evolve over time Natural selection can only increase or decrease heritable traits that vary in a population Adaptations vary with different environments Learning CatalyticsAn individual can evolve in its lifetimeoPopulations evolve not individuals oMutations in somatic cells can happen Natural selection is a random process:oFalse oMutation is random oIndividuals more suited to environment produce more offspring Species of organisms can evolve camo b/c the organisms need to blend in
oFalseNatural Selection will result in an organism being a perfect match to their environmentoFalse oNo thing as a perfect match (T/F) humans are still evolving oFalse Natural Selection Part B LectureEtymologyHomo: like, resembling oHomology: similarity in characteristics from shared ancestryGeo: the earth oBiogeography: the study of distribution of species of past and present Paleo: ancient oPaleontology: the scientific study of fossils Vestigi: traceo

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