invasion of allied British and Soviet troops. In 1950 people of Iran elected Mohammad Mossadegh, the secular democrat as prime minister. In 1952 Mosaddegh nationalized the Anglo-Iranian oil company. Returning Iran’s oil to its people and became a national hero. The British, however, were outraged and accused him of stealing. The British demanded punishment by the World Court and the United Nations. 1953 Iranian coup d'état: In 1953 the British MI6 aided an American CIA operative in organizing a military coup d'état to oust the nationalist and democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. . In 1953, foreign powers (American and British) again came to the Shah's aid. After the young Shah fled to Italy and installed Reza Pahlavi as Shah. Reza Shah Pahlavi: The young Shah was known for opulence and excess. The Shah's regime was seen as an oppressive, brutal, corrupt, and extravagant regime by some of the society's classes at that time. It also suffered from some basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks, shortages, and inflation. The Shah's government was known for its autocracy, its focus on modernization and Westernization, and for its disregard for religious and democratic measures in Iran's constitution. The Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non- Muslim Western power (the United States) whose culture was affecting that of Iran. At the same time, support for the Shah may have waned among Western politicians and media – especially under the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter – as a result of the Shah's support for OPEC petroleum price increases earlier in the decade. There were widespread social, economic, and political reforms introduced during his reign and a number of these reforms led to public discontent which provided the circumstances for the Iranian Revolution. Particularly controversial was the replacement of Islamic laws with Western ones and the forbidding of traditional Islamic clothing, separation of the sexes and veiling of women's faces with the niqab. Police forcibly removed and tore chadors off women who resisted his ban on the public hijab. In 1935, dozens were killed and hundreds injured in the Goharshad Mosque rebellion. While the shah had his lunches flown in by Concorde from Paris. The people starved. The shah kept power through his ruthless internal police; THE SAVAK. An era of torture and fear began. White Revolution: The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasting until 1978. Mohammad Reza Shah's reform
program was built especially to weaken those classes that supported the traditional system. It consisted of several elements including land reform; sales of some state-owned factories to finance the land reform; the enfranchisement of women; nationalization of forests and pastures; formation of a literacy corps; and institution of profit sharing schemes for workers in industry.
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- Fall '19
- Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Pahlavi dynasty, Qajar Shah