CLEP Principles of Management 1

What factors the researchers changed in the

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what factors the researchers changed in the experiment, simply because the workers knew they were being studied. The Hawthorne Studies, associated with Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger are the most extensive investigations in management ever performed. One part of the Hawthorne Studies was an experiment in which six women were set to work assembling telephone relay equipment, and lasted two and a half years. The key part of the Hawthorne Studies involved studying six women assembling telephone relay equipment--their performance production gradually increased no matter what changes were made. As a result of the Hawthorne studies, it was concluded that employee performance depended not only on Scientific Management type changes, but psychological and social factors. Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger concluded as a result of the Hawthorne Studies that employee performance also depended on psychological and social factors--such as morale of employees, whether they felt appreciated, supervisor- employee relations, etc. One of the biggest results from the Hawthorne studies was unexpected--it was determined that simply by paying attention to the efforts of employees, their performance could be improved. The Hawthorne studies resulted in the term "Hawthorne Effect," which is the idea that employees work performance is improved if employees know they are being studied or watched. 42. 43. CONTINGENCY/SITUATIONAL THEORIES - approach to management involves coming up with a management approach or combination of approaches which best fits the situation. It is based on the idea that there is no single approach to management which is suitable for every possible situation. The contingency approach chooses from the Scientific Management, Administrative, Human Relations, Bureaucracy , and Systems approaches. The contingency approach states that effective leadership depends on many factors in the situation, and was developed after the trait and behavioral approaches. There are several major contingency approaches which have been defined. 44. 45. Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach was centered on the idea of two leadership style extremes--boss-centered and subordinate-centered. They
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stated that a leader's style fell somewhere between boss-centered and subordinate- centered. Boss-centered leader makes all the decisions without any subordinate input. Subordinate-centered leader relies entirely on the subordinates to make the decisions. In the subordinate-centered leadership style, the boss delegates the decision-making authority to the subordinates. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach, there is no correct leadership style--to what extent a leader should be boss-centered or subordinate-centered depends on the situation such as the kind of subordinates, time pressures, and what the leader is trying to accomplish. 46.
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