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Rebuffs– occur when you fail to act on demandSelection Hypothesis– it is not marriage per se that is responsible for link between marriage & health-Healthier people tend to marry each other & unhealthy people have harder time finding and keeping a mateSelf-Summarizing– occurs when individual continues to repeat points in an argument until partner stopstrying to make arguments of his/her ownSeparation– withdrawal of at least one partner without any resolution to conflictSocial Strain Hypothesis– states that marriages with high levels of negativity do not protect individuals by actually can decrease their well-beingSocial Support Hypothesis– explanation for link between marriage and health-Marriage allows opportunities for social engagement and companionship that improve over well-beingStress Buffering Hypothesis– negative effects of stress are reduced by presence of social support
Structural Commitment– conditions that cause person to continue on course of action once he/she has initiated course of action, regardless of whether he/she is personally committed to itStructural Improvement– occurs when positive change is made in relationship following a conflict WHY DO WE MARRY?3 hypotheses why people choose to marry vs cohabitate:1.Couple receive exogenous payoff by marring a.Follow socially normative customs rewarded by societyb.Marriage: rite of passage into adulthood & social approval of couple2.Commitment Device a.Harder to end marriage vs cohabitation – marriage promotes relationship-specific investments s/a purchasing home or having childrenb.Majority of couples get married b/c serves as commitment device3.Signalling device to state publicly extent of one’s love for partnera.Marriage, stronger signal of love than cohabitationHistorically, didn’t marry for love but for political or economic reasons-Marriage important in terms of creating family alliances-Love expected to occur after marriageToday, variety of reasons for marriage-Religious reasons – serving a higher power-Emotional security – shoulder to lean on when needed or “soft place to fall”-Companionship – enjoy spending time with partner & want to spend life’s day-to-day moments with partner-Married before having children-Intense physical attraction to person-Partner provides economic security – partner can rescue them from economic disparity-Pressured by family or religious leaders-Unplanned pregnancy -Told they are “getting old”-Escape parental home-Rebel against parental control-Rebound from previous relationship-“rescued” from unsatisfying lifeMarriage RatesRate of married couples w/ children declining vs rate of cohabiting couples increasingMarriage rate measured in 2 ways:1.Crude Marriage Rate– # of marriages every 1000 people in a given year
a.Problem: denominator in equation includes unmarriageable people s/a children not good indicator of likelihood of marriage2.General Marriage Rate– # of people in population eligible for marriage & restricts denominator