Modernization and Application of Anthropology Applied anthropology is the use of anthropological expertise on a very practical level in trying to understand and alleviate human problems. For example, the impact of a new system of agriculture in a society, the causes of illiteracy among adults in a given group, etc. E.B. Tylor considered anthropology to be a "policy science" and urged for its use in improving the human condition. Anthropology was first used in the administration of the British colonies under the rubric of indirect rule (originated by Lord Lugard) by Northcote Thomas in Nigeria in 1908. There are two major types of anthropological practice: intervention anthropology and policy research . Intervention anthropology comprises the approaches of action anthropology, research and development anthropology, community, advocacy anthropology, cultural, and social marketing. Policy research comprises the methods of social impact assessment (collecting sociocultural community data for use by development planners), evaluation research (determining the success of a project), technology development research (acting as a communication link between producers and users of new technology), and cultural resource assessment (identifying the impact of federal development on archaeological sites and historic buildings). Survival is a phenomenon that appears under one set of conditions and persists when those original conditions no longer exist . E.B. Tylor believed that seemingly irrational customs and beliefs, such as peasant superstitions, were vestiges of earlier rational practices. The Scottish evolutionist John Fergusson McLennan used the term survival to mean symbolic forms of earlier customs (e.g., mock battles in nuptial rituals were said to be survivals of an earlier stage of marriage by capture). Some writers did not view survivals as useless but rather as having a transformed use. They emphasized the change in function and its integration with the rest of culture. International Development is a process of directed change that focuses on improving the welfare of people in so-called underdeveloped countries. This was often conducted by promoting economic growth. Diffusion is the spread of something from one group to the next. In addition to this, 'stimulus' diffusion is the spread of ideas from one group to another. A model of change based on the belief in the inevitable advance of science and Western secularism and processes is modernization. It includes industrial growth, consolidation of the state, bureaucratization, market economy, technological innovation, literacy, and options for social mobility.
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