T measured variable sensor interface circuit data

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(t) = measured variable Sensor Interface Circuit Data System p(t) y(t) x(t) p meas. (t) Disturbances % Stable, linear relationship desired % Interface circuitry can be used to compensate for non-linear sensor behavior or external disturbances (e.g. temperature effects)
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8 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Transducer Calibration % Calibration % Determines the function that relates sensor output, y(t) , to known physical input, p(t) % Static % linearity, sensitivity, dynamic range, etc. % Dynamic % gain factor, phase factor, bandwidth, etc.
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9 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Sensitivity ( S ) % Magnitude of change of y with respect to change in p % Offset % Magnitude of y under normal excitation and zero applied input, p =0 % Full Scale Output (FSO) % Algebraic difference between upper and lower endpoints of output % Resolution % Smallest change in p that results in a detectable change in y (expressed as % FSO) (often limited by A/D converters of data acquisition system) Transducer Specifications y p
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10 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Linearity % Deviation of response from straight line (maximum deviation / FSO) % Hysteresis % Deviation of response for increasing vs. decreasing inputs (maximum deviation / FSO) Transducer Specifications y p y p
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11 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Noise Floor % RMS electrical noise n rms , when p = 0 % Minimum Detectable Signal (MDS) % Smallest measurable signal, (usually limited by electronic noise) % Dynamic Range % Range of amplitudes ( p min & p max ) over which the transducer exhibits linear behavior Transducer Specifications y(t) t y p
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12 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Bandwidth % Frequency range over which the sensor exhibits (nearly) constant sensitivity (usually defined by ±3 dB variation limit) % Bounded by cut-on and cut-off frequencies % Resonance % Frequency of maximum response for higher-order systems Transducer Specifications f Y(f) P(f) 1 st Order System f Y(f) P(f) Higher-Order System
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13 Lecture 2 Transducer Basics
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