5. The glomerular filtrate concentration of calcium (Ca+2) is about 4 mEq/L. The concentration of calcium in the urine is about 5 mEq/L. How would you explain this difference?
Additional calcium is moved from the plasma in the peritubular capillaries to the fluid in the renal tubule during tubular secretion.
Pathology of the Urinary System:
1. Polycystic kidneys:
Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder passed down through families in which many cysts form in the kidneys, causing them to become enlarged.
inflammation of the kidneys.
3. Kidney Stones:
a hard mass formed in the kidneys, typically consisting of insoluble calcium compounds.
4. Urinary Tract Infection:
an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. It includes painful urination and either frequent urination or the urge to go.
5. Kidney Failure:
a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood.
6. Bladder Cancer:
a cancer that starts in the bladder. The bladder is the body part that holds and releases urine. It is in the center of the lower belly area.
7. Neurogenic Bladder: is the name given to a number of urinary conditions. It is the result of problems with nerves in the body that may control how the bladder stores or empties urine. These conditions include overactive bladder (OAB), incontinence, and obstructive bladder, in which the flow of urine is blocked.