haidt.graham.in-press.above-and-below-left-right.pub070-as-Word.doc

G crusades against pornography and sexualization in

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shy away from (e.g., crusades against pornography and sexualization in the media, family values, community bonding, and the importance of respect for traditions). Consistent with Cluster 3, this group combines the high liberal settings on Harm and Fairness with the high conservative settings on Ingroup, Authority and Purity. (We take this opportunity to note that foundations are foundations, not final structures. The religious Left and religious Right use each of the five foundations in different ways to construct two very different but very "thick" moral worldviews, both of which are despised by Libertarians.) Cluster 4: Social Conservatism Westen (2007) draws from several of Ronald Reagan's speeches to construct the master narrative that he says has guided the Republican Party from the early 1980s until today. We condense that story here: Once upon a time, America was a shining beacon. Then liberals came along and erected an enormous federal bureaucracy that handcuffed the invisible hand of the free market. They subverted our traditional American values and opposed God and faith at every step of the way… Instead of requiring that people work for a living, they siphoned money from hard-working
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Ideology and moral foundations -- 11 Americans and gave it to Cadillac-driving drug addicts and welfare queens. Instead of punishing criminals, they tried to “understand” them. Instead of worrying about the victims of crime, they worried about the rights of criminals…Instead of adhering to traditional American values of family, fidelity, and personal responsibility, they preached promiscuity, premarital sex, and the gay lifestyle...and they encouraged a feminist agenda that undermined traditional family roles... Instead of projecting strength to those who would do evil around the world, they cut military budgets, disrespected our soldiers in uniform, burned our flag, and chose negotiation and multilateralism… Then Americans decided to take their country back from those who sought to undermine it. (Westen, 2007, p.157-158) This narrative is saturated with themes from all five foundations. It shows ingroup concerns with patriotism and America's enemies; authority concerns with traditional roles and the pervasive metaphor of "undermining;" and purity concerns with sexual morality. Harm is the foundation least in evidence (aside from "victims of crime"), although fairness concerns are pervasive, and pervasively different from liberal applications of fairness. Conservatives invoke fairness as reciprocity, particularly toward those who cheat or break the law; they are not concerned with equality of outcomes, which is so central in social justice movements. Examining these four narratives together can yield insights into the shifting and often puzzling dynamics of American politics. One can see, for example, how the Republican Party forged an electoral majority by uniting two groups whose moral foundation scores and personality profiles are quite far apart.
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