Research report - National Child Labour Action Programme for South Africa (1).doc

Provision of both primary and secondary schools in

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provision of both primary and secondary schools in rural, and particularly commercial farming, areas . Alternative means of transport, such as the provision of bicycles, needs to be investigated. This could be achieved with the cooperation of the private sector. Lead institution: DrE. Secondary institution: DT . New Policy? Yes. Costs : No additional costs beyond existing policy proposal. Time line : within three years of adoption of policy. (99) Information on the specific needs and problems of children who are working and the relevant elements of a Child Labour Action Programme and the applicable legislation should be introduced in the training of teachers, included in the school curriculum (life skills) and disseminated to managers of schools, teachers and governing bodies. Lead institution: DrE ; Secondary institutions : NGOs, Trade Unions. New policy? Yes. Once off costs : minimal. Recurrent costs : minimal. Time line : To be introduced within two years of adoption of policy. 6.2 Hazardous work and health and safety 6.2.1 Introduction In this section the following are discussed: hazards children face at work; information on how many children are involved in hazardous work; general action steps to address hazardous work. In the last part the kinds of hazards that are so serious that they should be seen as a worst form of child labour are discussed. 6.2.2 The hazards children face at work Children may be particularly vulnerable to a number of hazards by virtue of their biological status and behavioural patterns, for example: Very young children have higher body surface areas to mass ratio, which will increase the likelihood of absorption for skin-permeable chemicals. Childhood organ development may also be incomplete, resulting in children metabolising or excreting chemicals differently to adults. Chemicals that affect hormones can be particularly dangerous during children’s neurological and reproductive development. Children may have increased risk for cancer from certain exposures because rapidly dividing cells are more vulnerable to carcinogenic impacts. Machinery and work equipment, including protective equipment, are usually not designed for young people. Ergonomic hazards such as repetitive movements and awkward postures may result in significant injury to developing ligaments and bone-growth plates. Children are also thought to be more sensitive to psychological abuse, and more likely to suffer long-term consequences. Young girl workers may have particular biological and social vulnerabilities. Much of the literature and most of the initiatives in occupational health focus on the formal sector, or at best economic work. There is very little knowledge about health and safety in informal work or non- market work, which are areas where children and especially very young children are generally involved. Non-market work, such as fetching wood or water, or other household chores, may also expose a child to hazards.
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Page 64 Proposed action – by forms of harm Draft 4,10 Oct 2003
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