Soluble fiber: beans, oatmeal, barley, broccoli, and citrus fruits. Dissolve in water. Non-soluble fiber: fruit, veggie skins, wheat, etc. promote regularity of bowel movement.Functions of Carbohydrates:oProvide fuelCarbohydrates are the primary source of fuel in the human body. The brain is a carbohydrate-dependent organ. 130g of carbohydrate is recommended. Diet should be composed of 45% to 65% carbohydrates.oSpare body proteinThe body will break down internal protein before fat stores.oHelp prevent ketosisIf carbohydrates intake is too low, the body will break down both stored fat and internal protein to meet its fuel needs. The body cannot handle excessive breakdown of stored fat because the body lacks the necessary equipment. As a result, partially broken down fats accumulate in the blood in forms of ketones resulting in ketosis. Consequences of ketosis are fatigue, nausea, and lack of appetite. It is easily determined from presence of acetone or diacetic acid(ketone bodies) in the urine. oEnhance learning and memory processesBlood glucose concentrations regulate neural and behavioral processes. Enhances learning and memory.glucose consumed early in the morning helps with memory.However, elevated blood glucose has a decline on mental function.Health and Carbohydrates: high intake of vegetables and fruits and low risk of chronic disease. oLegumes are low in fat and excellent source of nutrition. oWhole grain have a lower risk of cancers and heart disease.oWomen should consume no more than 25 grams while men 38 grams of sugars.oConsumption patterns:Foods rich in carbohydrates are easily grown in most climates, low in cost, and easily stored. Asia= rice and US= soft drinks as largest source of carbsoDental caries: is the gradual decay of teeth. Caused by carbohydratesNursing bottle syndrome:frequent exposure of sugars to babiesoFood Sources: carbohydrates fall into two groups, Sugars and StarchesSugars: table sugar contains 4 grams of carbohydrates per spoon.Starches: typical cereal grain parts are the germ, bran, and endosperm. Most nutrients are in the bran and germ. Whole grains examples: cornbread, ground cornmeal, wheat bread, oatmeal, rye bread, barley, graham crackers.Carbohydrate counting: helps tech clients of carbohydrate content of food. One serving of milk, fruit, grain, cereal, bread, or starchy veggie is 15 grams of carbohydrates. 45 to 60 grams of carbohydrates are recommended.Exchange list values:oStarch: one starch exchange is 15 gramsoVegetable: one veggie is 5 grams oFruit: one fruit is 15 gramsoMilk: one cup is 12 gramsDietary Recommendations: o45% to 65% of calories should come from carbohydrateso130 grams of CHO a dayo175 grams of CHO for pregnant women (210 for lactating)oNo more than 6% should comprise of sugars.