83 o ATP is the cells energy shuttle Hydrolysis of its terminal phosphate

83 o atp is the cells energy shuttle hydrolysis of

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8.3: o ATP is the cell’s energy shuttle. Hydrolysis of its terminal phosphate yields ADP and (P) i and releases free energy. o Through energy coupling , the exergonic process of ATP hydrolysis drives endergonic reactions by transfer of a phosphate group to specific reactants, forming a phosphorylated intermediate that is more reactive. ATP hydrolysis (sometimes with
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protein phosphorylation) also causes changes in the shape and binding affinities of transport and motor proteins. o Catabolic pathways drive regeneration of ATP from ADP+(P) i . 8.4: o In a chemical reaction, the energy necessary to break the bonds of the reactants is the activation energy , E A . o Enzymes lower the E A barrier. o Each enzyme has a unique active site that binds one or more substrate(s) , the reactants on which it acts. It then changes shape, binding the substrate(s) more tightly ( induced fit ). o The active site can lower an E A barrier by orienting substrates correctly, straining their bonds, providing a favorable microenvironment, or even covalently bonding with the substrate. o Each enzyme has an optimal temperature and pH. Inhibitors reduce enzyme function. A competitive inhibitor binds to the active site, whereas a noncompetitive inhibitor binds to a different site on the enzyme. o Natural selection, acting on organisms with variant enzymes, is responsible for the diversity of enzymes found in organisms. 8.5: o 1)
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