Increased imperialist pressure scramble for

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Increased Imperialist Pressure ­ “Scramble for Concessions” ­ Japan successful in taking part of China leads to others to want to a part of China ­ Fears of China “carved up like a melon” ­ “Social Darwinism” ­ meanwhile in countryside, conditions are deteriorating
What’s the Answer? ­ Change in government? ­ Sun Yat­sen (1866­1925): Revolution ­ At court: 100 Days Reform 100 Days Reform ­ June 1898: Guangxu Emperor (1871­1908) ­ advisors told him that China needs to go through serious reforms like Japan ­ influenced by Kang Youwei ­ Kang Youwei (1858­1927) ­ confucian scholar ­ radical ideas ­ said Confucius (if lived in their time) would want change ­ confucius would approve of westernization ­ Confucius was a reformer ­ Emperor orders: ­ reform of education ­ new “modern” ministries ­ ends in palace coup by Empress Dowager Cixi ­ emperor imprisoned Rise of Conservatives: Boxer Rebellion ­ 1898 Yellow River floods → famine ­ Fighters United in Righteousness ­ Government ultimately supports them ­ slaughter in countryside ­ siege of the Legations in Beijing ­ defeat by Allied Western Force Boxer Protocol, 1901 ­ most humiliating ­ execution of all pro­Boxer officials ­ removal of all fortifications from Beijing to the sea ­ suspension of examinations in implicated cities ­ $700 million indemnity Last Years of the Qing ­ calls for constitutional monarchy ­ Qing efforts to reform ­ education­­end of examination system, 1905 ­ military­­new armies ­ commerce ­ government
­ provincial assemblies ­ virtually NO effect on rural majority except higher taxes Growing Doubts ­ 1908­­3 Year Old Emperor Pu Yi ­ Clashes over Railroads 1911 “Revolution” ­ Wuchang Uprising ­ Oct 10, 1911 ­ New Army barracks ­ Joins with Hubei Provincial Assembly, Chamber of Commerce Falling Dominos ­ Mid Oct­­ Changsha Revolt ­ By end of Nov, 15 provinces have “seceded” from Qing Revolution vs. Uprising ­ does end dynasty ­ but not social revolution Founding of the Republic ­ “Min guo” (Republic) Jan 1912 ­ Sun Yatsen (1866­1925) as President ­ Challenge by Qing general Yuan Shikai ­ Yuan becomes first President Republican Government ­ 1912­1913 ­ Attempts at representative government ­ political parties, party rivalries ­ “Nationalist” Party (Guomindang (GMD) or Kuomintang (KMT)) under Sun ­ 1913 Yuan dissolves parliament 1915­1923 Warlord China ­ The bathos of Yuan Shikai (d. 1916) ­ no effective national government ­ backdrop to “May Fourth Movement” May Fourth Movement ­ Political Background: ­ Japan’s 21 demands ­ WW1­­Treaty of Versailles
­ “Self determination” ­ May 4th 1919 demonstrations ­ Intellectual Movement ­ 1915 “New Youth” Magazine ­ Chen Duxiu, editor ­ Peking University: Cai Yuanpei (1868­1940) ­ intellectuals said real problem was confucianism ­ calls for end of Confucian Family System ­ new society ­ individual rights instead of family rights ­ calls for new education/learning ­ “Mr. Science” and “Mr. Democracy ­ Language reform ­ vernacular (“bai hua”) movement ­ Lu xun (1881­1936) ­ went to Japan to be a doctor ­ disappointed at the way Japanese were treating Chinese ­ New politics ­ Liberal Democracy ­

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