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Increased Imperialist Pressure“Scramble for Concessions”Japan successful in taking part of China leads to others to want to a part of ChinaFears of China “carved up like a melon”“Social Darwinism”meanwhile in countryside, conditions are deteriorating
What’s the Answer?Change in government?Sun Yatsen (18661925): RevolutionAt court: 100 Days Reform100 Days ReformJune 1898: Guangxu Emperor (18711908)advisors told him that China needs to go through serious reforms like Japaninfluenced by Kang YouweiKang Youwei (18581927)confucian scholarradical ideassaid Confucius (if lived in their time) would want changeconfucius would approve of westernizationConfucius was a reformerEmperor orders:reform of educationnew “modern” ministriesends in palace coup by Empress Dowager Cixiemperor imprisonedRise of Conservatives: Boxer Rebellion1898 Yellow River floods → famineFighters United in RighteousnessGovernment ultimately supports themslaughter in countrysidesiege of the Legations in Beijingdefeat by Allied Western ForceBoxer Protocol, 1901most humiliatingexecution of all proBoxer officialsremoval of all fortifications from Beijing to the seasuspension of examinations in implicated cities$700 million indemnityLast Years of the Qingcalls for constitutional monarchyQing efforts to reformeducationend of examination system, 1905militarynew armiescommercegovernment
provincial assembliesvirtually NO effect on rural majority except higher taxesGrowing Doubts19083 Year Old Emperor Pu YiClashes over Railroads1911 “Revolution”Wuchang UprisingOct 10, 1911New Army barracksJoins with Hubei Provincial Assembly, Chamber of CommerceFalling DominosMid Oct Changsha RevoltBy end of Nov, 15 provinces have “seceded” from QingRevolution vs. Uprisingdoes end dynastybut not social revolutionFounding of the Republic“Min guo” (Republic) Jan 1912Sun Yatsen (18661925) as PresidentChallenge by Qing general Yuan ShikaiYuan becomes first PresidentRepublican Government19121913Attempts at representative governmentpolitical parties, party rivalries“Nationalist” Party (Guomindang (GMD) or Kuomintang (KMT)) under Sun1913 Yuan dissolves parliament19151923 Warlord ChinaThe bathos of Yuan Shikai (d. 1916)no effective national governmentbackdrop to “May Fourth Movement”May Fourth MovementPolitical Background:Japan’s 21 demandsWW1Treaty of Versailles
“Self determination”May 4th 1919 demonstrationsIntellectual Movement1915 “New Youth” MagazineChen Duxiu, editorPeking University: Cai Yuanpei (18681940)intellectuals said real problem was confucianismcalls for end of Confucian Family Systemnew societyindividual rights instead of family rightscalls for new education/learning“Mr. Science” and “Mr. DemocracyLanguage reformvernacular (“bai hua”) movementLu xun (18811936)went to Japan to be a doctordisappointed at the way Japanese were treating ChineseNew politicsLiberal Democracy