Test 1 Notes Compilation CogPsych.docx

End of perception marrs model of perception

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End of Perception Marr’s model of perception Interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes Primal sketch o 2-dimensional image of brightness and darkness, local geometric structure 2.5-D Sketch o Texture, edges, shading provide information about surfaces and depth 3D sketch o Incorporates real world (top-down) knowledge to recognize and understand the scene Perceptual learning (Gibson, 1955) Participants are shown the “original” stimulus pattern Then they are shown other patterns, one at a time Some of the patterns are copies of the original and others are different Their task is to identify all and only the copies of the original pattern Perceptual learning results Initially, errors based on the number of similarities between a stimulus and the original Over time, participants began to notice more about the stimuli and their features They had learned what aspects of the stimuli to attend to Learning (a top-down process) guides information pick up o Ex. Wine tasting Direct perception (Gibson) “Richness” of the stimulus o Outside the laboratory, nature provides much information in the stimulu we process Light hitting the retina contains highly organized information that requires little or no perception Johansson’s point light perception Light bulbs attacked to joints o Shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, ankles o Movement filmed in the dark Still images appear to be random arrangements of lights but.. Motion is interpretable in terms of speed, direction, gender, weight, happiness, etc. of walker Direct Perception – Affordances Information available to the organism is a product of an animal-environment ecosystem Experience gained through interaction affects perception Organisms perceive “affordances” o The acts or behaviors permitted by objects, places and events o Example: a squirrel perceives the affordance of a chair for sitting even though it may not have sat on a chair before An association of sitting on an object that is rigid with a horizontal surface (the invariant) Built up through classical conditioning
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Visual Agnosias revisited (briefly) Apperceptive agnosia o Cannot match objects and drawings o Trouble naming object if lines are interrupted or angle is unusual Associative agnosia o Can match objects and drawings o Use point-by-point processing o Cannot name objects, even if they can copy them Prosopagnosia
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Review Questions
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Question Set 1 (PPX 1)
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