Foundations and Depression 15 physiological development

Foundations and depression 15 physiological

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Pathopharmacological Foundations and Depression 15 physiological development, occupational and social histories. Any relevant labs should be evaluated well. The patient should be screened for substance abuse and physical abuse (APA,2010). The information gathered during the assessment will help guide treatment. The APA practice guidelines suggested that a depression diagnosis be founded by DSM-V criteria. Major depressive disorder necessitates two or more major depressive episodes. Diagnostic criteria includes loss of enjoyment in previous pleasurable activities for at least two weeks. This needs to be in conjunction with five additional outlined symptoms that cause a degree of impairment in everyday living situations. Other diagnostic features include the presence of depressive symptoms for most of the day, weakened enjoyment in most activities, remarkable weight loss or weight gain, dysregulated sleep habits, agitation, lower response time, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, clouded thought processes, and suicidal ideation. For a patient to meet criteria for major depressive disorder, the above-mentioned symptoms need to be presented as an alteration from the patient’s baseline. Furthermore, they cannot be associated with other medical disorders or the grieving cycle. Depression is further categorized by severity (Mild, moderate, severe), duration (remission, recurrent, chronic), and symptom profile (melancholic, atypical). Depression can also be categorized by the response to treatment (refractory, treatment resistant) and the etiology (Uher, 2013). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has developed standardized treatment guidelines for mental health practitioners in the United States. The guidelines provide evidence- based recommendations for the treatment of depression. The APA recommends the use of PHQ- 9 as a diagnostic screening tool for depression. The PHQ is a an easy to use self-reporting tool that screens for scores each of the nine diagnostic criteria per the DSM-V for depression. It scores each category on scale of 0-3. The tool has been authorized for use in primary care
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Pathopharmacological Foundations and Depression 16 settings. The tool determines the severity of depression; 0-4 is no depression, 5-9 is mild, 10-14 is moderate, 15-19 is moderately severe, and 20-30 is severe. The PHQ-9 is questionnaire with 10 items. It takes very little time to complete and can be given over the phone if need be (APA, 2010). The APA guidelines endorse the teaching of clients suffering from depression as well as providing education to their families. When providing education to a depressed patient, the provider should be sure to include the symptoms, treatment, and the implications the diagnosis has on daily living. The health care provider should be sure to use a language that is easily understood and be nonjudgmental. The teach back method should be utilized to ensure the patient has a complete understanding of their diagnosis. If the patient allows, family members and those active in the daily life of the patient should be present for the education as well.
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  • Fall '18
  • NA
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Major depressive disorder, pathopharmacological foundations, Pathopharmacological Foundations and Depression

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