Planimeter analog measuring device used to determine

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Planimeter : analog measuring device; used to determine area of 2D shape Summary There is a close coupling between agent and instrument We learn how to use external reps as instruments of thought Sometimes we can think inside with mental versions, sometimes we cannot Thinking is a constructive process, like working with tools Depends on cost structure of i. Imagination ii. Projection iii. Manipulation Cognition flows to where the costs are lower The project-create-project cycle lets us think farther because physical manipulation carries some of the load 8 reasons why we externalize thought i. Shareable : To provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; ii. Persistence : To create persistent and independent referents; iii. To facilitate re-representation – rearrangement and reformulation; iv. Natural Encoding : Because they are often a more natural representation of structure than mental representations; v. They facilitate the computation of more explicit encoding of information; vi. They enable the construction of arbitrarily complex structure – big reps; vii. They lower the cost of controlling thought —they help coordinate thought. viii. Physical modeling allows us to run analog simulations The 8 reasons -> think faster, deeper, broader and ‘cheaper’ It let us think more powerfully with external representations than without. They 18
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allow us to think the previously unthinkable . Embodied Cognition 3 Marking in dancing as embodied cognition Marking : action that is practiced, explored, or reviewed in a less energetic manner (ex. Doing hand motion of moves rather than actually doing it) It is an imperfect model, like a sketch or abstraction Attend to a specific aspect of a movement Used for practice Not limited to dancing, can also be used for sports, playing instruments Experiment found that marking is better than simulating in head AND practicing full-out Experiment tested: precision , completeness , force , and tempo. Marking is a movement reduction system Other movement reductions: whispering/subvocalizing, gesturing, physical miming with objects Marked aspect anchors projection Is the dancer’s body, as a whole, considered the anchor, or is the marked movement the anchor?] I believe that the marked movements are anchored to their body parts that are associated to the full movements. Perception Using tic-tac-toe as example, we would see grid and pieces See/experience what is present Reality oriented 19
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Projection Just grid, no pieces, and must project pieces onto board Anchored imagery (the grid is the anchor) Augmented reality Imagination No grid and pieces, play game in mind Imagery has no size or location No anchor Virtual reality Projection claims Mental projection is more powerful than mental imagery alone We can project beyond what we can readily imagine External structure helps us Projection does not offload memory, because there is no persistence
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