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Describe the key pathophysiologic concepts. To answer this question completely, you must answer all of the sub-questions below using complete sentences. Each sub-question may be answered in 1-6 sentences. a) What two medication drug classes may trigger an exacerbation of dyspnea in a person with the disorder identified in question 1? The two drug
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3 MODULE 6 CASE STUDY classes that may trigger an asthma exacerbation are non-cardioselective beta blockers and NSAIDs, specifically aspirin (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007). b) Describe the early events responsible for the pathogenesis of the disorder identified in question 1. How does this result in chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness? The patient’s asthma exacerbation started with the early asthmatic response which results in acute bronchoconstriction and occurs within the first 30 minutes and resolves in 1 to 3 hours. This is starts by the antigen entering the bronchial mucosal lining, activating dendritic cells to alert T helper cells to differentiate into Th2 cells and start the inflammatory process which results in vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, mucosal edema, bronchospasming, and thick mucosal secretions that narrow the airway and obstruct airflow. If this process progresses into 4-8 hours after antigen exposure it is called a late asthmatic response which results in airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic airway inflammation. This is shown by
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