total sample who reported being migrants from abroad 90 has migrated to Africa

Total sample who reported being migrants from abroad

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total sample who reported being migrants from abroad, 90% has migrated to Africa and 7% to Middle East – by contrast, only 6 respondents (3%) said that they had returned from Europe or North America. In this regard, for most returnees, the educational and skills background has to be put into the perspective of specific national education, economic, and social systems: 15 KII Craig Murphy, IOM Regional Mixed Migration Project Figure 3 – % of employees having received their education abroad by sector and region
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24 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration returnees from the Somali diaspora in Europe or North America are more likely to have benefitted from minimal education standards, whereas Somali returnees from Kenya or Ethiopia are often barely literate. The figure below shows that the five main countries of residence before return account for 87% of respondents’ answers (in green on the graph). Interestingly, these five countries are also the five core Member States that signed the Addis Ababa Commitment, under the UNHCR’s Global Initiative for Somali Refugees (GISR). This unprecedented and global political initiative not only shows that neighbouring East African countries have perceived the potential humanitarian, social, and political risks associated with the presence of Somali refugees; it also highlights the awareness by UNHCR and its partners 16 of the difficulty for those refugees to reintegrate in their home country. Figure 4 – Returnee country of residence Returnees were asked to further explain their living conditions while they were out of the country. There are considerable differences by region and age group: while significant proportions of teenage migrants in Somaliland reported having lived abroad, in Puntland, young adults were twice as likely to have lived abroad as teens. In Somaliland, people who have lived abroad mainly did so because of economic reasons (16% of Somaliland migrants) and for family reasons (11%), while 10% state having been born abroad; In Puntland, on the other hand, 11% of migrants state that they lived abroad because of conflict; 11% cite family reasons; while 3% say they were born abroad. Overall, it shows the complexity of discussing return to Somaliland and Puntland with a mixing of voluntary and forced migration and a spread across countries with unique and diverse educational systems and labour market profiles. These experiences impact in turn the outlook of youth, including both their skills and migration intentions. Migrants who had lived abroad were asked when they had moved (back) to Somaliland or Puntland. It is interesting to note that, in general, the return phenomenon is relatively recent: about three quarters of international migrants arrived within the last four years (less than a year for 16%, 1 year ago for 22%, 2 years ago for 23%, 3 years ago for 11%.) 16 The United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), the African Union (AU), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
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  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

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