total sample who reported being migrants from abroad 90 has migrated to Africa

Total sample who reported being migrants from abroad

This preview shows page 23 - 26 out of 82 pages.

total sample who reported being migrants from abroad, 90% has migrated to Africa and 7% to Middle East – by contrast, only 6 respondents (3%) said that they had returned from Europe or North America. In this regard, for most returnees, the educational and skills background has to be put into the perspective of specific national education, economic, and social systems: 15 KII Craig Murphy, IOM Regional Mixed Migration Project Figure 3 – % of employees having received their education abroad by sector and region
Image of page 23
24 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration returnees from the Somali diaspora in Europe or North America are more likely to have benefitted from minimal education standards, whereas Somali returnees from Kenya or Ethiopia are often barely literate. The figure below shows that the five main countries of residence before return account for 87% of respondents’ answers (in green on the graph). Interestingly, these five countries are also the five core Member States that signed the Addis Ababa Commitment, under the UNHCR’s Global Initiative for Somali Refugees (GISR). This unprecedented and global political initiative not only shows that neighbouring East African countries have perceived the potential humanitarian, social, and political risks associated with the presence of Somali refugees; it also highlights the awareness by UNHCR and its partners 16 of the difficulty for those refugees to reintegrate in their home country. Figure 4 – Returnee country of residence Returnees were asked to further explain their living conditions while they were out of the country. There are considerable differences by region and age group: while significant proportions of teenage migrants in Somaliland reported having lived abroad, in Puntland, young adults were twice as likely to have lived abroad as teens. In Somaliland, people who have lived abroad mainly did so because of economic reasons (16% of Somaliland migrants) and for family reasons (11%), while 10% state having been born abroad; In Puntland, on the other hand, 11% of migrants state that they lived abroad because of conflict; 11% cite family reasons; while 3% say they were born abroad. Overall, it shows the complexity of discussing return to Somaliland and Puntland with a mixing of voluntary and forced migration and a spread across countries with unique and diverse educational systems and labour market profiles. These experiences impact in turn the outlook of youth, including both their skills and migration intentions. Migrants who had lived abroad were asked when they had moved (back) to Somaliland or Puntland. It is interesting to note that, in general, the return phenomenon is relatively recent: about three quarters of international migrants arrived within the last four years (less than a year for 16%, 1 year ago for 22%, 2 years ago for 23%, 3 years ago for 11%.) 16 The United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM), the African Union (AU), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
Image of page 24
Image of page 25
Image of page 26

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 82 pages?

  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors