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is a monetary contribution from corporate body, which can apparently be seen as a monetaryloss. In case of Marks & Spencer, their corporate social responsibility include their donations inthe global anti-hunger movements, and their direct philanthropic movements such as arrangingfor distribution of apparels to the needy people in the underdeveloped countries in Africa(Marksandspencer.com, 2019). Furthermore, the waste reduction approaches of Marks &Spencer is a part of their corporate social responsibility. Thus, it can be realised that the conceptsof corporate profitability and the concept of corporate social responsibility contradicts eachother, as one of them measures the incoming flow of monetary fund and the other is a part of theoutgoing flow of monetary fund.However, Singh and Hanafi (2019) argued that the maintenance of these two business operationsis essential for the business organisations. As corporate profitability is directly related to thepersonal income of the members of the corporate body, it is essential for the organisations tomaximise their corporate profitability, but for large organisations, especially the multinationalcorporations, it is also essential to maintain a certain level of corporate social responsibility aswell. The reasons behind this are many, but the two major reasons are related to the legislationsand the brand image of the business organisation. For instance, Crane, Matten and Spence (2019)argued that in the UK, there are strict and detailed legislations and regulations regarding thecorporate social responsibility of the organisations, and it dictates that the business organisationshave to invest at least 2% of their annual profit in various activities related to their corporate10
ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRAGIES: MARKS AND SPENCER’Ssocial responsibility. Furthermore, Wang et al. (2016) argued that the brand image of a businessorganisation is also related to their corporate social responsibility. As a business organisationmaintains their corporate social responsibility by conducting various activities related to socialwelfare and environmental protection, they start contributing back to the society that haveprovided that organisation with a customer segment to do their business with. Thus, according toStrange and Zucchella (2017), it significantly enhances their brand image among the public bycreating a positive impression.In case of Marks & Spencer, their business operations are related to the retail industry. Thus, it isessential for their governing corporate body to maintain a certain level of business profitabilitythat will ensure the sustainability of their business capital. However, at the same time, Marks &Spencer also have to maintain the regulations and laws regarding corporate social responsibility,and invest in various social welfare movements or activities. Hopkins (2016) argued that in orderto create a perfect balance between them, Marks & Spencer have to integrate their corporatesocial responsibility related activities with their retail business operations. For instance, it is