- One survivor and he escapes to Al-Andalus. ● Abbasid dynasty assumes power in 750, builds capital in Baghdad ● Scion of Ummayad dynasty escapes to Al-Andalus, reigns there
*** Similarities and differences in these empires in rome Why were conquests so successful? Internal Factors ● Islam provides a potentially unifying ideology - can bring together Arabic tribes - Provides people with structure and answer on how to live their lives. ● Alternative to conquest - civil war and disunity - We are not ● Success begets success - new converts join the movement (e.g. Berber tribes, North Africa) - language , new tribes and civilizations - Ex across North Africa- Berbers of North Africa- not christian or jewish, but they join on islam because they see it as a way to expand their political power. ● Role of trade - trading sphere can expand within shared Islamic culture, expanding economic activity. Integrating Christians and Jews into economic activity through trade. - Many christians speak arabic to be able to trade and communicate. - Can reward followers as you expand and conquest. - Taking over administrations at the highest level. Why were conquests so successful? External factors ● Conquered Mediterranean land only weakly held by Roman Empire. Ordinary people in these territories not big fans of Byzantine Emperors. - They're holding land weakly, and people in these territories don't like the byzantine empire. Christian that are not eastern orthodox, in north africa. ● Not forcibly converting people - can go on living your life, with protection. ● To the east: Once Persians defeated, Arabs have captured major agricultural lands in Mesopotamia. Without these resources, difficult to regain land February 20th, 2018 Lecture 11 Ibn Fadlan’s World? - Relic coin picture- comes from 950 CE. Coin that was minted by Princess of Olga of Kiev→ Princess of the Rus / Vikings in what is now Russia. Ancestors of modern day russian people. - Christian Symbolisms. - Others have read the bird as a falcon, or possibly a dove - Falcon would have been a symbol of the goddess Freyja (Norse Goddess) - Possibly made as a gift? - Showing influence of kaliphate from Baghdad
- Modeled after a coin called Dirham, minting a lot of coins and circulating across Europe. Found across Europe. - Coin was eventually used as a pendant. Islamic Golden Age ● Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid Caliph (died 809 CE) - 120-150 years before iban fadlan - He oversees cultures - 1001 Arabian Nights ● Establishes Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) - Research institute where scholars who spoke different languages would translate texts and pursue research questions. - All translating and working through greek texts - Ptolemy- would be an example of some of the work they are translating ● Baghdad is the center of transcontinental trade linking Europe and China - Islamic silver and coinage forms foundations for trade.
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