Electron beam 1930 1960 scanning probes were used in

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Seeing an atoms is visualization- microscopes, optical or light – 16 cu. Electron beam 1930-1960. Scanning probes were used in the 1980s. Stm= scanning tunneling, uses electronic current. AFM= Atomic force, Uses contact. Stoich= elements, compounds and reactions. Forms of matter are free atoms- isolated (noble gasses). Natural occurins: He, Ne, Ar never in compound. Artificial are all elements, vaccume chamber. Molecules are covalently bonded atoms and have a definite formula. Allotrophes are elements and molecules. Extended substances are solids and liquids. Solids are e.g. copper Cu (s) and liquid e.g. mercury Hg (l) Natural state of atoms are noble gases-free atoms. All others-bonded Valence electrons (VE’s)- outer most electrons and reactive. Atoms can: share VE’s- bond. Lose VE’s- cation +. Gain VE’s- anion -. History: 1000 BC Cu, Fe, Au, Ag, Sn, S, Hg, Pb… 400 B.C.- Democritus (Greeks)- notion of an atom
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800 A.D.- Jebir (Iraq)- experimentation. From 800 A.D. to 1780’s change from alchemy to chemistry 1600 Boyle- 1 st chemist, 1780s Lavoisier- mass laws, 1800 Dalton-theory of atoms and molecules. From 1780 to 1800 was the stoich period.
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