Dowling General Impacts Superfile (1) (Aimun Khan's conflicted copy 2015-02-10) (Nikhil’s MacBook Pr

Women and girls are not just killed they are raped

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"Women and girls are not just killed, they are raped, sexually attacked, mutilated and humiliated. Custom, culture and religion have built an image of women as bearing the 'honour' of their communities. Disparaging a woman's sexuality and destroying her physical integrity have become a means by which to terrorize, demean and 'defeat' entire communities , as well as to punish, intimidate and humiliate women ," according to Irene Khan of Amnesty International. Sexual violence as a tool of war has left hundreds of thousands of women raped, brutalized, impregnated and infected with HIV/AIDS. And hundreds of thousands of women are trafficked annually for forced labor and sexual slavery. Much of this trafficking is to service western troops in brothels near military bases. Even women serving in the military are subjected to sexual violence. U.S. servicewomen have reported hundreds of assaults in military academies and while serving on active duty. The perpetrators of these assaults have rarely been prosecuted or punished. The impact of war on children is also profound. In the last decade, two million of our children have been killed in wars and conflicts. 4.5 million children have been disabled and 12 million have been left homeless. Today there are 300,000 child soldiers, including many girls who are forced to 'service' the troops . War restricts women’s freedom and suppresses their basic human rights Abeyesekera, director of a humans rights organization, 03 (Sunila Abeyesekera, director of Inform, a Sri Lankan human rights organization 02-03 ) At the same time, wars and conflicts have led to a host of negative consequences for unarmed women civilians and dependent family members, children, the old and the infirm. Figures worldwide point to the fact that the majority of refugees and internally displaced persons are female . The erosion of democratic space that often accompanies conflict and war also propel women into a more active role in political and social life. In moments when men and male-dominated traditional political and social formations, such as political parties and trade unions, are reluctant or unable to come forward in defense of human rights and democratic principles, groups of women have had the courage to stand up to the armed might of both state and non-state actors. War and conflict also push women into decision-making positions in their families and communities, in particular in the role of head of household. Most conflicts and wars emerge out of processes of identity formation in which competing identity groups and communities resort to violence to affirm their equal status in society. Given this dynamic, conflict and war situations result in the heightening of all forms of conservatism and extremism including religious fundamentalism, ultra- nationalism and ethnic and linguistic chauvinism. The hardening of identity-based roles ascribed to men
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