For instance the normative assumption that adoption of pure strategies ie cost

For instance the normative assumption that adoption

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(Golden, 1992), and has been challenged by empirical evidence. For instance, the normative assumption that adoption of “pure” strategies (i.e. cost minimization or differentiation) professed by Porter (1980) leads to superior performance has received Strategy development in markets 521
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mixed results. Dess and Davis (1984) and Hambrick’s (1983) studies of industrial goods producers found support for the superiority of the single strategy proposition, whereas others have found that combination strategies (cost minimization and differentiation) outperform pure strategies in the longer run (Buzell and Gale, 1987; Hill, 1988; Murray, 1988; Parnell and Wright, 1993). Jones and Butler (1988) propound that differentiation can lead to cost effectiveness. We may speculate that globalization of markets and competition makes combination strategies more relevant today than some decades ago given the fact that increased occurrence of low-cost outsourcing/offshoring, flexible manufacturing systems, and virtual organisation changes the very nature of low cost, scale economies competitive advantage. Nevertheless, the present study has used Porter’s typology for its external focus since we investigate strategy development in an international competitive environment. Furthermore, Porter’s taxonomy is well established and has also been used in previous research on internationalisation strategy (Solberg and Durrieu, 2006). Turning now to international (marketing) strategy, this class of strategy can be studied from different angles. Ayal and Zif (1979) discuss market concentration vs market diversification as two major avenues for international expansion. This typology is somewhat limited as it deals with only one – albeit important – aspect of international marketing. Calori et al. (2000) suggest six different archetypes of strategy based on competitive advantage, process, segmentation and coordination: global marketers, transnational restructurers, technological innovators, luxury global niche players, differentiation and low cost. This typology lump together both generic, marketing, competitive and innovation strategies. Timmor and Zif (2005) suggest four different prototypes based on 3D: adaptation, innovation and involvement. The two latter (Calori et al. , 2000; Timmor and Zif, 2005) discuss strategic issues, such as innovation, outside the realm of international marketing. Also Timmor and Zif’s (2005) prototypes are based on behavioural dimensions (involvement), reflecting strategic thrust of the firm, but which may not be classified a strategy properly spoken. As the focus of the present paper is on international market access rather than on strategy in general these dimensions of strategy (innovation and involvement) were not included. Cavusgil and Zou (1994) for their part, investigate the effects of standardisation/ adaptation of the marketing mix. The same authors extend this to encompass what they term the GMS including also configuration, coordination and integration of activities (Zou and Cavusgil, 2002).
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