3- His goal was a self sufficiency for France, and in order to achieve his goal 4- He encouraged old industries and newly created ones.For example new factories in Paris manufactured mirrors to replace Venetian importsBut you a high quality product in order to protect your products from foreign competition, 5-so he set upa system of state inspection and regulation
6- He compelled all craftsmen and manufacturers to organize into guilds7- He encouraged skilled foreign craftsmen and manufacturers to immigrate to France8- He built roads and canals in order to improve communications9- and to protect French products he placed high tariffs on foreign goods(protectionist)10- he created a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods, so he connected France to its colonies in North America11- His period was a period of prosperityFrench classicism:The principles of absolutism dominated and manifested in art of that periodHow ? individualism was not allowed, instead artists had to glorify the state personified by the king.during his reign Racine (1639-1699), Moliere (1622-1687) wrote tragedies using classical settings to explore their ideas.Eastern Europe and RussiaIn East Europe, the rulers also try to build a monarchy in its absolutist dimension. Their intention was similar to that of West European rulers. But the social and economic conditions were different from those in Western Europe.1-Powerful nobility2-weak middle class3- an oppressed peasantry composed of serfs. In Eastern Europe and Russia monarchs had to compromise with nobilities (why because it is strong).Austria and the ottomans Turks:Habsburgs state remained a composite out of three separate and distinct territories: The old” Hereditary provinces” of Austria, the kingdom of Bohemia, and the Kingdom of Hungary. This political situation did not help the emergence of a strong and absolute monarchy? Because the conditions required some kind of decentralization. The Hunagarian nobles during the 17th rose in revolt against the attempt of Vienna to impose absolute rule. The Hunagarians were protestants, and they resisted the attempt of re-Catholicization by the Habsburgs.Russia- Peter the Great(1682-1725)
Peter was determined to increase the power of Russia and to expand beyond its borders, and continue the expansion toward Ukraine that started in 1667. He also had completed the conquest of Siberia.Peter was determined to modernize the Army. So he needed military schools and universities and proffesionels to achieve such huge project.One of his reform required a five years education plan for ever noble man away from home.He introduced skillfull people, though they were not part of the nobles. He also introduced foreigners to serve into his military-bureaucracy infrastructure. A special forces of Cossacks and foreigners numbered more than 100,000.
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