The urban setting o Training of priests lawyers and doctors Growth of the city

The urban setting o training of priests lawyers and

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The urban setting o Training of priests, lawyers and doctors Growth of the city and urbanized economy leads to a need for more lawyers + possibly doctors More priests b/c church trying to discipline heresy Religious communities o Theology is “queen of the sciences” Most prestigious subject- explains everything else- ultimate form of knowledge o Secular institutions – usually very tied with the church’s culture The seven Liberal Arts Trivium : o Grammar o Logic (dialectic) o Rhetoric All usually done at a younger age Quadrivium : o Arithmetic o Geometry
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o Astronomy o Music Moves on to the mathematical side when they are older The University Curriculum The Arts Course (leading to MA) o Rhetoric; + litterae humaniores (poetry, history, moral philosophy) Used as a way to write better in Latin -> in order to become a good lawyer o Philosophy, inc. logic and ‘physica’ (Aristotle) The “Higher” faculties o Law (Civil law, Canon law) (Justinian, Gratian) o Medicine (Galen, Hippocrates) o Theology Bible Church Fathers (Greek, Latin) (Compilations: Peter Lombard) o “Terminology used reveals what it (the university) had in common with all other types of universitates (brotherhoods, guilds, trades, communes) which multiplied in the West.” o But: autonomy from local power is obtained from above What universities bring: Systematic, organized and continuous training in fundamental speculative and scientific disciplines, and in professions International education and a common academic culture (“Scholasticism”) Organization of learned professions (ex. Medicine, law) Scholasticism Term used to refer to the predominate intellectual program that emerges at the time of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) o Dominican- teaching at the University of Paris o Reinterprets Aristotle’s philosophy to harmonize it with Christian theology Philosophy was term for what we think of as science Provided a scientific basis for the Church’s way of teaching o “Thomism” becomes dominant philosophy until the 17 th century o Canonized 1323 Black Death 14 th Century full of problems 100 years of war
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Famine Disease Plague Papal Schism Peasant Revolts Europe at the beginning of the 14 th Century Overpopulation- boom in economy that resulted in people having bigger families Growth of towns and commerce and the rise in trade routes (especially by overseas trade routes) Bad weather; Bad harvests; Bad Famine Death Book of revelation: talks about the end of the world- 4 horseman of the apocalypse coming in Defining the Plague The most catastrophic disease of the Middle Ages But plague was not new: had been in Europe before o Justinian’s Plague (541 CE) o Fourteen more waves of plague o Black Death (1348-1729s) o Third Pandemic (1850s-1950s) Black Death: a 19 th Century term (probably a mistranslation of the Latin alma, meaning both ‘terrible’ and ‘black’) o Came in from a city called Caffa- people wanted to get away so sailed
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