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Attribute Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 8.1.3 Attribute Types of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 8.2 Views on Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2.1 Selective Views on the Requirements Foundation . . . . . . . . 115 8.2.2 Condensed Views on the Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 8.3 Prioritizing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 8.3.1 Method for Requirements Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 8.3.2 Techniques for Requirements Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 8.4 Traceability of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8.4.1 Advantages of Traceable Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8.4.2 Purpose-Driven Definition of Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 8.4.3 Classification of Traceability Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 8.4.4 Representation of Requirements Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 8.5 Versioning of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 8.5.1 Requirements Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 8.5.2 Requirements Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 8.5.3 Requirements Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

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xx Contents 8.6 Management of Requirements Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 8.6.1 Requirements Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 8.6.2 The Change Control Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8.6.3 The Change Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 8.6.4 Classification of Incoming Change Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 8.6.5 Basic Method for Corrective and Adaptive Changes . . . . . . . 134 8.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 9 Tool Support 139 9.1 General Tool Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 9.2 Modeling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 9.3 Requirements Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 9.3.1 Specialized Tools for Requirements Management . . . . . . . . . 142 9.3.2 Standard Office Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 9.4 Introducing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 9.5 Evaluating Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 9.5.1 Project View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 9.5.2 User View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 9.5.3 Product View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 9.5.4 Process View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 9.5.5 Provider View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 9.5.6 Technical View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 9.5.7 Economic View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 9.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 References 149 Index 157 The glossary of those terms used in this book (IREB-Glossary) can be found on the website of the “International Requiremens Engineering Board e.V.”
1 1 Introduction and Foundations The impact of requirements engineering (RE) on successful and customer- oriented systems development can no longer be ignored. It has become common practice to provide resources for requirements engineering. In addition, there is a growing understanding that the role of the require- ments engineer is essentially self-contained and comprises a series of demanding activities. 1.1 Introduction Why perform requirements engineering? According to the figures reported in the Standish Group’s Chaos Report of 2006, much has improved in the execution of software projects in the twelve years between 1994 and 2006. While about 30 percent of the soft- ware projects investigated in 1994 failed, it was a mere 20 percent in 2006. The number of projects that exceeded time or budget constraints signifi- cantly and/or did not meet customer satisfaction dropped from 53 percent to 46 percent [Chaos 2006]. Jim Johnson, chairperson of the Standish Group, names three reasons for the positive development of the figures since 1994. One is that the communication of requirements has much improved since ten years ago. These figures are of importance since how the requirements of a system are handled is a significant cause for project failures and/or time and budget overruns. 1.1.1 Figures and Facts from Ordinary Projects Requirements engineering as a cause of errors According to past studies, approximately 60 percent of all errors in system development projects originate during the phase of requirements engi- neering [ Boehm 1981 . These errors, however, are often discovered only in

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