11Introduction and FoundationsThe impact of requirements engineering (RE) on successful and customer-oriented systems development can no longer be ignored. It has becomecommon practice to provide resources for requirements engineering. Inaddition, there is a growing understanding that the role of the require-ments engineer is essentially self-contained and comprises a series ofdemanding activities.1.1IntroductionWhy perform requirements engineering?According to the figures reported in the Standish Group’s Chaos Report of2006, much has improved in the execution of software projects in thetwelve years between 1994 and 2006. While about 30 percent of the soft-ware projects investigated in 1994 failed, it was a mere 20 percent in 2006.The number of projects that exceeded time or budget constraints signifi-cantly and/or did not meet customer satisfaction dropped from 53 percentto 46 percent [Chaos 2006]. Jim Johnson, chairperson of the StandishGroup, names three reasons for the positive development of the figuressince 1994. One is that the communication of requirements has muchimproved since ten years ago. These figures are of importance since howthe requirements of a system are handled is a significant cause for projectfailures and/or time and budget overruns.1.1.1Figures and Facts from Ordinary ProjectsRequirements engineering as a cause of errorsAccording to past studies, approximately 60 percent of all errors in systemdevelopment projects originate during the phase of requirements engi-neering [Boehm 1981. These errors, however, are often discovered only in
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