AHT 326 Nationalism 2015

Manifestations of the cold war in africa in africa

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Manifestations of the Cold War in Africa In Africa the struggle for ascendancy between the forces of capitalism and communism sparked coups and revolutions, fuelled rivalries with ‘aid and assistance’ and brought about political separations/rifts through espionage and dirty tricks. The USA government confronted communism in Africa during the cold war era. They gave financial, military assistance and technical advisors to both newly independent African states and national liberation movements. The argument of the American government was that the so called militant nationalism in particular was nothing else but communist forces trying to assert their dominance in Africa. It is in pursuit to check the communist Russian influence in Africa that the United States sponsored mercenary forces in Congo and Angola to fight alongside the pro capitalist Nationalist Liberation Forces. The United States together with Western mercenaries helped Mobutu SeseSeko to get power through a coup d’état which overthrew the government of Joseph Kasavubu and Patrice Lumumba. The communist nations were however supporting Lumumba. In Angola , the Soviet Union was supporting The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) while the United States supported the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the Front for National Liberation of Angola (FNLA). The Americans hired British mercenary forces and sent them to Angola to fight alongside the military wing of the FNLA and UNITA. Notwithstanding the overwhelming support from the US administration to the Angolan pro-Western Nationalist Liberation Forces, their efforts were frustrated by the mercenary Cuban forces which fought alongside the military wings of MPLA and provided them with military personnel, training and technical advisors. 32
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Latin America The United States was interested in toppling the Communist government of Fidel Castro. However, with the support that Cuba received from The Soviet Union, this mission failed. Cuba's alignment with the Soviet Union during the Cold War was seen as a threat to both the safety and democracy of the United States by many US politicians and citizens. In May 1962 Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba as a means of countering an emerging lead of the United States in developing and deploying strategic missiles. He also presented the scheme as a means of protecting Cuba from another United States-sponsored invasion, such as the failed attempt at the Bay of Pigs in 1961. After obtaining Fidel Castro's approval, the Soviet Union worked quickly and secretly to build missile installations in Cuba. On October 16, President John Kennedy was shown reconnaissance photographs of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba,
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