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3. When organizations attempt to use worker development to reduce barriers to advancement for women, how does the gendered division of labour in society limit its effectiveness?There is broad recognition that women and other groups of workers often face systemic barriers to organizational advancement. While direct gender-based discrimination in accessing training opportunities is uncommon, the broader context of employment and social relations may create structural barriers to female advancement that cannot be solely addressed in the workplace or by training. The tasks associated with social reproduction typically fall to women, who often select forms of employment compatible with these demands. In doing so, women may reinforce externally imposed limitation in terms of career development. E.g., women may often find themselves excluded from social activites that men use as networking opportunities. Even if women were invited and felt comfortable in these activities, their other obligations may preclude participation. Simply being more mindful about the allocation of developmental assignments will not fully remedy this situation. Unit 61. What purposes does performance management serve?The purpose of performance management is to ensure that workers’ activities and outputs contribute to an organization’s goal. In essence, organizations are seeking to maximize the value they can extract from workers as well as eliminate any behaviour of which the employer does not approve. Workers may resist both the evaluations
and the realignment of their activites and outputs because this represents an alteration of the wage-effort bargain that was struck. That workers can resist performance management reflects the unique nature of labour as a commodity. Over time, workers have discovered many ways to enforce the wage-effort bargain. For example, they may limit the way in which and pace at which work is performed by controlling knowledge of the production process. Employers, in turn, have developed various techniques to counter these worker stratagems. Performance management has developmental and administrative purposes. It gives managers a concrete framework they can use to gather information about an employee’s performance, provide employees with feedback, and discuss an employee’s goals and how they align with the organization’s goals. By taking a developmental approach, managers help employees understand that the feedback they are getting is designed to improve their future competencies and further their careers. They have an administrative purpose in that they can provide input for the entire range of HRM activites, such as promotions, transfers, layoffs, and pay decisions. 2. Is it fair to characterize performance management as a way that employers control workers? Why or why not?