Bone also contains small amounts of magnesium sodium

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Bone also contains small amounts of magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate. What helps increase absorption of calcium, and makes bones stronger? Vitamin D is the most significant nutrient for the proper absorption of calcium. In addition to vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, and boron assist in absorbing calcium and
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also increasing bone mass. Exercise also helps the body absorb calcium. Osteomalacia – softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb calcium. Your body needs calcium to maintain the strength and hardness of your bones. In children, the condition is called rickets. Osteoporosis – a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Osteopenia – refers to bone density that is lower than normal peak density but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. *Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) - is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system – which normally protects its health by attacking foreign substances like bacteria and viruses – mistakenly attacks the joints. Osteoarthritis - is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over time. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint in your body, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine. Types of bumps on bones Tuberclea - small rounded projection or protuberance Tuberosity - a rounded prominence; especially : a large prominence on a bone usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments Spine - is a prominent plate of bone Types of grooves, notches, openings Foramen - an opening, hole Fissure - is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body also generally called a sulcus, or in the brain a sulcus. Fossa- is a depression or hollow Ch. 7 – Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate. In the human skeleton , it consists of 80 bones and is composed of six parts; the skull bones, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, the rib cage, sternum and the vertebral column. Vertebral Column Spinous Process – bony parts that stick out of vertebrae in the middle.
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Transverse Process - bony parts that stick out of the vertebrae on the sides of SP. Pedicle and Lamina -forming the vertebral arch encasing the spinal cord. Intervertebral Foramen – is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae. Vertebral Canal – is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes. Function and parts of IV discs Intervertebral Foramen – is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.
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