Trusting Authorities on the Subject Theory v. Hypothesis - definitions of each • Differences between theory v. hypothesis. Probably won’t need to name them but will need to know enough about each one to recognize what is theory and what is a hypothesis • Go from theory to hypothesis. You will probably be given a theory and have to generate multiple hypotheses from it. Characteristics of a good scientific theory 1
Exam 1 study guide 1. Internally and Externally Consistent 2. Precise, Testable and Falsifiable 3. Parsimonious 4. Based upon Controlled, Repeated Experiments 5. Tentative 6. Correctable & Dynamic (changes are made with new data) 7. Progressive • May be given a theory or statement, and have to recognize • a) why it’s either a good scientific theory • b) why it’s not a good scientific theory • c) characteristics of pseudoscience Characteristics of Pseudoscience – recognize them in statements, examples, and name the ones that appeared in prisoners of silence 1. Escape Hatches or Loopholes 2. An absence of self-correction and an accompanying intellectual stagnation 3. An emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation. 4. Excessive reliance on anecdotal and testimonial evidence to substantiate claims. 5. A tendency to place the burden of proof on skeptics, not proponents, of claims 6. Refusal to use the scientific method, or the claim that it can not be used 7. Evasion of the scrutiny afforded by peer review. 8. Absence of connectivity: that is, a failure to build on existing scientific knowledge. 9. Use of impressive-sounding jargon and rethoric whose primary purpose is to lend claims a facade of scientific respectability 10. An absence of boundary conditions, that is, a failure to specify the settings under which claims do not hold.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 5 pages?
- Fall '08
- d. Statistical Validity