Spent 10 years in kangwondo even after passing cse

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Spent 10 years in Kangwondo even after passing CSE ! Later published Uniform Manual of Martial Arts Peasants o Peasants (Commoners) o Respect for those who till land o Also artisans and merchants o Tax base o Peasants’ land tax reduced (to 5%) after 1444 Tribute Tax Law; local tribute tax, plus military/ corvee labor Merchants and Commerce o Merchants and commerce generally held in disdain by Confucianism o Itinerant markets, port markets, city markets; then came licensed shops o New nationwide distribution system with trade hubs outside Seoul o Rise of private merchants o Lack of viable cash currency until late Choson o Tax on trade, attempts to curb private spending and extravagance Lowborns o Lowborn (base or mean people) o Paekjung, Kiseng Kisaeng o Bridged classes o Lowborn sometimes of yangban fathers o Patrons were yangban o Literate, artistic, talented o Sexualized o Did not adhere to Confucian separation of genders o Hwang Chini (황진이~) Slaves o Public and private ownership o Tied to land o No taxes or corvee labor o Sometimes had absentee owners; more like serfs o Outresident nobi owed half of crops to owners’ very few became rich o Slaves took yangban, commoner, or nobi surnames in early /mid-19 th c o Some nobi had commoner wives o Govt’s attempt to limit the number of private slaves o Moral problem occasionally mentioned
o Yu Hyong-won—slavery brutalized both slaves and their masters” but did not call for its abolition o Yi- Ik –“choson’s weakness and poverty stem from slavery system” o Official slavery abolished in 1801 o Hereditary slavery abolished in 1886 o All slavery abolished in 1894 Taxation o Land tax reduced to 5 % after 1444 Tribute Tax law o Local tribute tax o Corvee labor tax o Other taxes levied as need o Equalized Tax Law in 1751 Uniform Land Tax Law o Kyonggi in 1608, Kangwon in 1623, nationwide by 1708 o Opposition by yangban and landed o Attempt to ease peasants’ economic burden o Replaced local tribute tax, paid in rice o Taxes fixed at 1 % in cotton or coin o Purchasing agents bought what government needed o Rise of commerce and trade Women in Confucianism o Woman’s Three Followings (father, husband, son) o Women’s sphere mostly domestic (limited social, public identities) o Women’s education was home-based moral education; teaching the virtues of being a good daughter-in-law, wife, and mother Changes in women’s status o In earlier times, women had equal inheritance rights and equal responsibilities toward elders, ancestors o Women lived with natal families after marriage [temporarily or permanently] o Confucianization happened gradually and incompletely Three Notable women of Choson o Sin Saimdang ! Confucian scholar, novelist, artist, poet and calligrapher ! Contemporary Hwang Chini ! But most noted for her role as mother of Yulgok ! 50,000 won bill ! Not a typical wise mother, good wife ! Lived with her own paretns after marriage
! Insisted her husband do not take in a second wife after her death !

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