Both procedural and substantive purpose promote

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both procedural and substantive purpose (promote safety), but procedural aspect  enough to use Erie  doctrine.  Mixed motive still allows fed to trump state b/c of  procedure. II. HEARSAY AND NONHEARSAY   A. Policy Reasons for Hearsay Rule - Prefer live testimony over out-of-ct  statements. 1. Absence of cross-examination.  Hearsay not subject to this truth-testing  technique. 6
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2. Jury cannot observe demeanor evidence.  Want trier-of-fact to gain  impression on voice, inflection, expression to see if telling truth. 3. No Oath.  Declarant not under oath when gave statement so not as  reliable.   B. Risks Accompanying Hearsay-bring out on cross-x. 1. Declarant misperceived event. 2. Declarant's faulty memory. 3. Misstatement, i.e. declarant's ambiguity or faulty narration. 4. Intentional or unintentional distortion by declarant.  Lack of candor or  sincerity. C. Rule 801  - a statement, other than one made by declarant while testifying at a hearing or trial, offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted. 1. "Statement" - 1) oral or written assertion or 2) nonverbal conduct of a  person if it is intended by the person as an assertion. a. Assertive Conduct, even w/out speaking, can be hearsay if behavior is offered to prove idea which actor sought to convey, e.g. pointing,  nodding, shaking the head, shrugging shoulders, coded signal. b. Nonassertive verbal conduct is not hearsay.  e.g. "ouch."  Some courts have held that questions are not assertive statements.     c. Nonverbal conduct is not hearsay if not intended to be an assertion . i. Wright v. Doe  (p.121) - Letters addressing recipient in a normal  manner about business matter, even though recipient is an  imbecile, cannot be used to prove he is competent.  Letters not  admissible b/c hearsay.  Broad def of hearsay - writers made  implied assertion that he is of sound mind and this is truth that the letters were offered to prove. ii. Evidence of NONCOMPLAINT is usually admitted.  Just make  sure to show similarity in conditions.  Only veracity of witnesses  saying no one complained need be tested and is not dependent on  anyone else.  Nonreporting is an act, not hearsay, not intended as  assertion.  Cain v. George  (p.129) iii. Nonverbal conduct may be offered as evidence that the person  acted as he did b/c of his belief in the existence of the condition  sought to be proved, from which belief the existence of the  condition may be inferred.   Letter sent to some recipient to evict him used to prove that  recipient lives at address inferred from behavior of sender.  Since  7
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