household furnishings.127 Blacks fought alongside Red Stick warriors at the Battle of the Holy Ground when American troops attacked the town in late December 1813. The Red Sticks suffered thirty-three casualties, among whom were twelve former slaves. Holy Ground was the only battle in which 122Grant, ed., Letters, Journals, and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins, A, 667. See Frank L. Owsley, Jr., Struggle for the GulfBorderlands: The Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812 -1815 (Gainesville, Fla., 1981) for details on the Creek War. Theron A. Nunez, Jr., "Creek Nativism and the Creek War of 1813-1814, Part2 (Stiggins Narrative, continued)," Ethnohistory, V (Spring 1958), 165; Littlefield, Africans and Creeks, 57-83, provides the best discussion of black participation in the war. 123Nunez, "Creek Nativism and the Creek War of 1813-1814," pp. 160 (quotation), 165. 124 Albert James Pickett, History ofAlabama and Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi, From the Earliest Period (Charleston, 1851; rpt. ed., Birmingham, 1962), 520. 125 "From the notebook of Michael Johnstone Kenan," n.d., typescript in the John R. Swanton Collection, National Anthropological Archives (Smithsonian Institution, Washington). H. S. Halbert and T. H. Ball, The Creek War of 1813 and 1814, edited by Frank L. Owsley, Jr. (Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1968), does not mention Jim Boy's black ancestry. His portrait appears in James D. Horan, The McKenney-Hall Portrait Gallery ofAmerican Indians (New York, 1986), 134-35. Jim Boy's Creek title was Tustennuggee Emathla. Thomas M. Owen, "Alabama Indian Chiefs," Alabama Historical Quarterly, XIII, 12-15. 1261t should be noted that Creek warriors did kill many slaves as well as women and children during the conflict. Halbert and Ball, Creek War, 208; and Littlefield, Africans and Creeks, 63- 83. 127Nunez, "Creek Nativism and the Creek War of 1813-1814," p. 169. This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Sat, 24 Nov 2018 15:30:28 UTC All use subject to
CREEK INDIANS, BLA CKS, AND SLA VERY 633 blacks "bore arms in behalf of their red owners." The conventional view held that the Indians had forced captured slaves to "help bear the brunt of battle."1128 Yet that was clearly not the case. The combatants were runaway slaves, now living among the Red Sticks as free men, who welcomed the opportunity to do battle. George Stiggins, a Creek of mixed blood who wrote a history of the war, reported that the Red Sticks were continually supplied with information concerning American troop movements by runaway slaves. He further related that these ex-slaves "were all determined men" who remained to fight the advancing Americans long after Josiah Francis and some of the other Indians had fled the field of battle. These runaways, according to Stiggins, "joined the Indians with the expectation of being free, when they and the Indians should conquer and destroy the white people according to the say of the prophets . ". 129 Kinnie Hadjo, a Creek who had fought at the Holy Ground, later chastised his fellow Creeks for using black men in battle. According to historians Henry S. Halbert and Timothy H. Ball, who wrote an early history of the war, Kinnie Hadjo "said that the proud and warlike
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- History, The American, Native Americans in the United States, Muscogee