Sibelius a finnish patriot sought to create a

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Sibelius, a Finnish patriot, sought to create a national musical style. He wrote songs and derived symphonic poems from the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala . He established himself as the leading nationalist composer with a series of symphonic poems: The Swan of Tuonola (1895) and Finlandia (1900).
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Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) Sibelius gained an international reputation, largely based on his Violin Concerto and seven symphonies. General characteristics Modal melodies Uncomplicated rhythms Insistent repetition of brief motives, ostinatos, and pedal points Strong contrasts of timbres and textures
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Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) His reliance on tonality helped build his popularity in Britain and the United States but hurt his reputation elsewhere.
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Sergei Rachmaninov (1873– 1943) Rachmaninov made his living primarily as a pianist, and his most characteristic works are for piano. Twenty-four preludes in every major and minor key (1892–1910) Two sets of Études-Tableaux Four piano concertos Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini for piano and orchestra (1934)
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Sergei Rachmaninov (1873– 1943) Orchestral works Three symphonies The Isle of the Dead (1907), a symphonic poem The Bells (1903), a choral symphony
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Sergei Rachmaninov (1873– 1943) Prelude in G Minor, Op. 23, No. 5 (1903) ABA’ form The theme is simple in conception, but the rhythm and figuration make it unique and memorable.
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Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915) Scriabin began by composing piano works in the style of Chopin, but he gradually absorbed other elements: The chromaticism of Liszt and Wagner The octatonic scale and exoticism of Rimsky- Korsakov The juxtapositions of texture, scale, and figuration of Debussy Scriabin developed a complex harmonic vocabulary of his own.
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Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915) In addition to piano music, he composed symphonies and the notable orchestral work Poem of Ecstasy (1908). Scriabin’s last five piano sonatas (1912– 13) dispense with key signatures and tonality; each develops from a complex chord that functions as a kind of tonic.
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Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915) Vers la flame (Toward the Flame), Op. 72 (1914) This one-movement work is a tone poem for piano. Figuration changes from section to section, creating the effect of static blocks of sound that are juxtaposed.
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Caricature of Scriabin by John Minnion
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Tonal and post-tonal music In our survey so far, Scriabin traveled furthest from common-practice tonal harmony, and Rachmaninov stayed closest. Many composers continued to work with tonality, bringing out new flavors and possibilities.
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Tonal and post-tonal music Others created approaches that either redefined tonality or abandoned the idea. The term post-tonal can be applied to all the new ways composers found to organize pitch, from atonality to neotonality.
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ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (1874–1951)
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Arnold Schoenberg (1874– 1951) Schoenberg moved the German classical tradition into atonality.
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  • Fall '07
  • Howell
  • Music, Arnold Schoenberg, Schoenberg, twelve-tone method

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