Convention convinced that unanimous Secession will not work National Parties

Convention convinced that unanimous secession will

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Convention convinced that unanimous Secession will not work National Parties’ Goal: Putting the Sectional Genie back in the Bottle - 1852 election (back to politics as usual) No sectional/territorial issues - Whigs choose: General Winfield Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers” - Democrats Nominate: Franklin Pierce - New Hampshire “Doughface” (Northerner that is friendly to the South) - Pierce wins easily (Democrats are the natural majority party) - Absent Sectional Tension, free soil party falls to 5% (half of ‘48) Problem: The Fugitive Slave Act - No statute of limitations, no jury trial, no testimony taken from the alleged “slave,” Judge got more money if he found for the slave-owner than if he found against him - Made slavery a “national” institution (If was a federal crime to assist a fugitive) - Free Blacks, ex-slaves, flee to Canada via the “Underground RR” - H. B. Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin , 1852 (Moral dilemma; appeal to “higher law”) Problem: Transcontinental Railroad - To link California to rest of the U.S. - Two Possible Routes: - Southern: New Orleans to Los Angeles (Gadsden Purchase, $10 million) - Northern: Chicago to San Francisco (Rock Island Bridge) - Problem: La. Purchase territory still unorganized - Stephen Douglas to the Rescue Kansas-Nebraska Act - La. Purchase is divided into two territories (Kansas and Nebraska) - Missouri Compromise ban on Slavery repealed, replaced with “Popular Sovereignty” - Passes Congress 133 to 100; North voted 2 to 1 against - (despite Democratic Whip) South voted 7 to 1 in favor (“ ths clause” 20 votes) made the difference - Northern outcry: “Slave Power” : blackmail
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Political Realignment following Kansas-Nebraska Act - Whig Party Disintegrates - Most Southern Whigs join Democrats (South becomes a one party region) - Many Northern Democrats either leave the party (or are defeated at the ballot box) - End of Second Party System - New Parties emerge to compete for support of Old Northern Whigs and Anti-Nebraska Democrats American Party - Starts in Northeast - Main usse: Anti-Immigrant and Anti-Catholic - Restrict Immigration and Citizenship for Immigrants - Strongest in Massachusetts - “Orphaned” Northern Whigs (Irish Immigration due to famine) - And in Maryland - Orphaned Southern Whigs (Desire to avoid sectional tension) - Also called: “Know-Nothings” Republican Party - Starts in Mid-west - Main Issue: Defend the North from the “Slave Power’ of the South - Republican Coalition: Northern Whigs, “Anti-Nebraska” Democrats, Free-Soilers, Liberty Party - Purely Sectional (Pro North) Party - Slogans: “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men!”, “Wide Awake” Popular Sovereignty in Practice: “Bleeding Kansas” - Neither side is willing to allow events to take their “natural course” - Northerners send immigrants to vote for Free State - Southerners on election day crosses State border and vote - Pro-Slavery and “Free-Soil” territorial governments - Both sides take up arms - fight - “Bleeding Kansas” becomes a national spectacle - Brooks Sumner Affair, May 1856 Election of 1856 - James Buchanan (“Doughface” Democrat) sweeps South and wins 4 free states (but gets only 45% of popular vote) -
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