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Convention convinced that unanimous Secession will not workNational Parties’ Goal: Putting the Sectional Genie back in the Bottle-1852 election (back to politics as usual) No sectional/territorial issues-Whigs choose: General Winfield Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers”-Democrats Nominate: Franklin Pierce - New Hampshire “Doughface” (Northerner that is friendly to the South) -Pierce wins easily (Democrats are the natural majority party)-Absent Sectional Tension, free soil party falls to 5% (half of ‘48)Problem: The Fugitive Slave Act-No statute of limitations, no jury trial, no testimony taken from the alleged “slave,” Judge got more money if he found for the slave-owner than if he found against him -Made slavery a “national” institution (If was a federal crime to assist a fugitive) -Free Blacks, ex-slaves, flee to Canada via the “Underground RR” -H. B. Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 (Moral dilemma; appeal to “higher law”) Problem: Transcontinental Railroad -To link California to rest of the U.S. -Two Possible Routes:-Southern: New Orleans to Los Angeles (Gadsden Purchase, $10 million)-Northern: Chicago to San Francisco (Rock Island Bridge)-Problem: La. Purchase territory still unorganized-Stephen Douglas to the Rescue Kansas-Nebraska Act-La. Purchase is divided into two territories (Kansas and Nebraska) -Missouri Compromise ban on Slavery repealed, replaced with “Popular Sovereignty”-Passes Congress 133 to 100; North voted 2 to 1 against - (despite Democratic Whip) South voted 7 to 1 in favor (“ths clause” 20 votes) made the difference⅗-Northern outcry: “Slave Power” : blackmail
Political Realignment following Kansas-Nebraska Act-Whig Party Disintegrates -Most Southern Whigs join Democrats (South becomes a one party region)-Many Northern Democrats either leave the party (or are defeated at the ballot box) -End of Second Party System-New Parties emerge to compete for support of Old Northern Whigs and Anti-Nebraska Democrats American Party-Starts in Northeast-Main usse: Anti-Immigrant and Anti-Catholic-Restrict Immigration and Citizenship for Immigrants-Strongest in Massachusetts-“Orphaned” Northern Whigs (Irish Immigration due to famine) -And in Maryland -Orphaned Southern Whigs (Desire to avoid sectional tension)-Also called: “Know-Nothings”Republican Party-Starts in Mid-west-Main Issue: Defend the North from the “Slave Power’ of the South-Republican Coalition: Northern Whigs, “Anti-Nebraska” Democrats, Free-Soilers, Liberty Party-Purely Sectional (Pro North) Party-Slogans: “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men!”, “Wide Awake”Popular Sovereignty in Practice: “Bleeding Kansas” -Neither side is willing to allow events to take their “natural course”-Northerners send immigrants to vote for Free State-Southerners on election day crosses State border and vote-Pro-Slavery and “Free-Soil” territorial governments -Both sides take up arms - fight-“Bleeding Kansas” becomes a national spectacle -Brooks Sumner Affair, May 1856Election of 1856-James Buchanan (“Doughface” Democrat) sweeps South and wins 4 free states (but gets only 45% of popular vote)-