Especially so on matters of opinion rather than fact

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Especially so on matters of opinion rather than fact o Defections from the majority A persistent minority punctures any illusion of unanimity When a minority consistently doubts the majority wisdom Majority members become freer to express their own doubts may even switch to the minority position A minority person who had defected from the majority was even more persuasive than a consistent minority voice (Levine, 1989) Initiate a snowball effect - Minority influence should o Be consistence o Be consistent with general social views o Appear flexible o Avoid being a double minority discounting principle - Majority vs minority influence o Convergent vs divergent thinking o Public vs private opinions
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o Normative (via social comparison) vs informational (via persuasive arguments) o Social impact of any position Depends on the strength, immediacy and number of those who support it o Minorities are more likely to convert people to accepting their views (Maass & Clark, 1984) - Is leadership minority influence? o Leadership The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group o Task leadership Leadership that organizes work, sets standards and focuses on goals Directive style One that can work well if the leader is bright enough to give good orders (Fiedler, 1987) Being goal oriented Keep the group’s attention and effort focused on its mission Combination of specific, challenging goals and periodic progress reports Helps motivate high achievement (Locke & Latham, 1990) o Social leadership Leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support Democratic style One that delegates authority Welcomes input from team members Helps prevent groupthink Good for morale Group members usually feel more satisfied When they participate in making decisions (Spector, 1986; Vanderslice & others, 1987) More motivated to achieve (Burger, 1987) Respond more positively to a decision More common in women o Transformational leadership Leadership that exerts significant influence enabled by a leader’s vision and inspiration Motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group’s mission Articulate high standards Inspire people to share their vision
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Offer personal attention (Bono & Judge, 2004) o What makes for good leadership often depends on the situation o Groups also influence their leaders
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