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Clan control – norms, values, trust with the assumption that the organization and the employee share the same interests. Best in environments where employees are empowered in decision-making. There is NO specific way to complete a task.Six Sigma – feedback control tool used in manufacturing that aims to reduce defects.Budgets – control process that involves investigating what a firm has done. Feedforward, concurrent, and feeback controls.Planning – involves 6 basic steps from the basic planning process.Situational analysisAlternative goals and plans (Single-use, Standing, & Contingency plans)Goal and plan evaluationGoal and plan selectionImplementationMonitor and control3 levels of planning.Strategic – long-term, more than 5 yearsTactical – intermediate-term, 2 to 5 yearsOperational – short-term, less than 2 yearsStrategic management – process of multi-level managers working together to develop and implement a firm’s goals and strategies.Strategic Management Process1) Establish mission, vision, goals (develop mission statement)
2) Analyze external opportunities and threats (external environment market, culture…)3) Analyze internal strengths and weaknesses (core competencies)4) Perform SWOT analysis and formulate strategy (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats; Comparison) (Corporate-level, Business-level, Functional-level strategies)5) Implement strategy (managers monitor if strategies are implemented appropriately)6) Implement strategic control system (Evaluate the organization’s progress and corrections.Strategic vision – desired future direction of an organizationStrategic goal – are the primary targetsOrganizing – structuring a company’s human/physical resources are organizing. Tasks, people, and departments are organizing. First step in organizing is to determine organizational structure (tasks, departments)1) Differentiation: division of labor, task specialization2) Integration: different units in an organization coordinate their efforts to create a product or service.Board of directors – 4 primary duties (also responsible for reporting to stockholders, protecting the rights of the stockholders, and advising management. The CEO reports to the board, and is responsible for a firm’s performance.1) Choosing, evaluating, reward, and replacing the CEO2) Assessing an organization’s financial plan3) Deciding an organization’s strategic direction4) Monitoring an organization’s ethical, legal, and socially responsible activitiesSpan of control – number of subordinates who report to one manager.