2.1.5 Accumulation by Dispossession Harvey’s main points leads to a discussion of how ‘The contemporary global land grab represents both continuity and change from previous historical episodes of enclosures’ (Borras, Franco; 2012: 35) carried out through a process of neoliberalization which David Harvey has examined as a global project to refurbish, renew and expand the conditions for capital accumulation and, in related fashion, to restore power to economic elites. Therefore Neoliberalism tends also to reinforce and celebrate strong private, individual and exclusive property rights (Heynen, 2005: 5). To create these conditions, linking the state, corporations and global financial institutions is key to a globalization process in which the consolidation of neoliberalism in developing countries stirs the capitalist relations between North and South. This is rooted in long-term colonial and trading relationships. Those configurations are based on the neoliberal policies and the global needs (North) leading to a process accumulation by dispossession (Harvey, 2003). Taking into account the context of this study, Gillon (Borras et al. 2010: 742) identifies the attempt to create an ‘environmental fix’ centered on biofuels as a ‘socio-ecological project indicative of the contradictory capitalist imperatives to exploit, protect and create new resources for accumulation’. Accordingly, Murphy further contributes on the emerging land-biofuel issue, by asserting that ‘the new global configurations of the biofuel complex is critical in understanding the dynamics of more localized agrarian political economies is equally essential, especially as biofuels complex may lead to appropriation of land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains’ (Murphy et al. 2011: 360). When it comes to the Land issue, such projects lead to movements that claim land in historical and traditional notions of access through hard work and collective action. It is a world-view at the core of their social, economic, cultural and ecological life. These struggles give expression to problems of the neoliberal era as displacement and disenfranchisement stem from an historic process of capitalist development, captured in the concept of accumulation by dispossession (Harvey, 2003).
14 The resistance against that process arises and turns towards a universalistic rhetoric of human rights, dignity, sustainable ecological practices, environmental rights, and the like, as the basis for a unified oppositional politics (Harvey, 2006: 53). Other than the forceful expulsion of peasant populations, as well as accumulation and privatization, there are dynamics of conversion of various forms of property rights (common, collective, state, etc.) into exclusive private property rights. The suppression of rights to the commons; and the suppression of alternative forms of production and consumption also exist; likewise monetization of exchange, particularly of land is a concern (Harvey, 2006: 43). But the way in which the
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