average service rate average arrival rate � μ there still will be LINE because

Average service rate average arrival rate ? μ there

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average service rate = average arrival rate, λ = μ there still will be LINE because of variability!!Not all even!! **when service rate < arrival rate, can only use TPT time!! TPT = WIP x CT = WIP/RATE(WIP and TPT are particular important in services) Multiple-stage process: the server with the least capacitywould govern the multi-stage process and forms the bottleneckand determines the wait time in the process!! (unbalanced demand with service capacity) If QUEUE/WIP is unavoidable, 1.Unoccupied time feels longer than occupied 2. Anxiety makes waits seem longer 3.Uncertain waits seem longer than known, finite waits 4.Unexplained waits are longer than explained 5.Unfair waits are longer than equitable waits 6.The more valuable the service, the longer the customer will wait 7.Solo waits feel longer than group waits. Managing service : 1. Sources of variability : 1) variability in INTERARRIVAL times (arrival rate) : rate of new requests entering the system is not UNIFORM 2) Variability in Process Times (servicing rate ) – proficiency varies among staff, process approach may vary among employees and customer requirements may vary. Combination of high rates, high variability and high utilization rates accumulate WIP in the system and increases TPT . Get more accurate measurement of the arrival times: OBSERVE on multiple days at different times of day; REDUCE unnecessary variability in arrival rates by scheduling! 2. Managing server capacity utilization : Match Demands/Arrivals with Capacity/Service Rate & Match People Serving With Those Being Served – 1) Managing Arrival Rates : ( Demand management ) Consider “Yield Management”: Incentivizing the smoothing and shifting of demand from peak periods using (i) call backs, (ii) pricing, (iii) promotions, (iv) by informing customers of wait times, (v) scheduling arrivals 2) Managing Service Rates : 1) Pull problems off-line for “SWAT Team” 2) Schedule staff to peak loads : forecast service demands, then match capacity to forecasted demand. 3) Staff/resource flexibility . Pool and “flex” resources by removing specialization; reduces work ‘lumpiness’; “pool” services across a region. Assumes demands will not be high everywhere simultaneously. 4) Options to improve service performance: Simplification of processes : reduce to the minimum number of processes to deliver a quality product or service; Parallelization of operations : Where possible perform operations in parallel rather than serially; Modularization of processes : responsibilities well defined; reduce overlaps in task coverage; eliminate gaps between task coverage; Standardization of processes : performed the same way for consistency of product and training of personnel; Learning : Build the skills of people working within it. Build task-specific skills and build team familiarity with routine interactions .
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