H tethered cord cclxiii a stretch induced functional

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H. Tethered cord cclxiii. A stretch-induced functional disorder associated with the fixation (tethering) effect of inelastic tissue on the caudal spinal cord, limiting its movement. cclxiv. Abnormal attachment is associated with progressive stretching and increased tension of the spinal cord as a child ages resulting in a variety of neurological and other symptoms. 28. CHIARI MALFORMATIONS
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cclxv. Structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance. 1. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem sit in an indented space at the lower rear of the skull, above the foramen magnum 2. Chiari malformation = Part of the cerebellum is located below the foramen magnum B. May develop when the bony space is smaller than normal  causing the cerebellum and brain stem to be pushed downward into the foramen magnum and into the upper spinal canal  resulting pressure on the cerebellum and brain stem may affect functions controlled by these areas and block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to and from the brain. C. What causes these malformations? cclxvi. Primary (Congentical) CM 1. Structural defects in the brain and spinal cord that occur during fetal development, whether caused by genetic mutations or lack of proper vitamins or nutrients in the maternal diet 2. More common cclxvii. Secondary (Acquired) CM 3. Caused later in life if spinal fluid is drained excessively from the lumbar or thoracic areas of the spine either d/t injury, exposure to harmful substances, or infection. D. How are they classified? cclxviii. CMs are classified by the severity of the disorder and the parts of the brain that protrude into the spinal canal. cclxix. Type I 1. Involves the extension of the cerebellar tonsils (the lower part of the cerebellum) into the foramen magnum, without involving the brain stem. 2. May not cause symptoms 3. Most common form of CM and is usually first noticed in adolescence or adulthood, often by accident during an examination for another condition. 4. Type I is the only type of CM that can be acquired. cclxx. Type II 5. “classic CM” 6. Involves the extension of both cerebellar and brain stem tissue into the foramen magnum. 7. Cerebellar vermis (the nerve tissue that connects the two halves of the cerebellum) may be only partially complete or absent. 8. Usually accompanied by a myelomeningocele
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9. The term Arnold-Chiari malformation (named after two pioneering researchers) is specific to Type II malformations. cclxxi. Type III 10. Most serious form of CM. 11. The cerebellum and brain stem protrude, or herniate, through the foramen magnum and into the spinal cord.
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  • Spring '14
  • Roberts,CristineAnn
  • Traumatic brain injury, Cerebrospinal fluid, Headache

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