This part of the text begins by discussing LEADERS: their traits and competencies, including an examination of the special case of charisma, their skills, their behaviors, and theoretical approaches emphasizing leaders’ behaviors including the Managerial Grid, transformational and transactional leadership, and the new area of authentic leadership. The second part looks at FOLLOWERS, how their behavior affects the leadership process, and theoretical approaches emphasizing follower behavior including Hersey-Blanchard’s situational leadership model and LMX theory. The third part examines the SITUATION as it affects the leadership process, explaining the importance of the organizational context and then examining theoretical approaches that emphasize the situation including Fiedler’s Contingency theory and Path-Goal theory. THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS: LEADERS 1. Leaders’ Traits and Competencies a. Leaders’ Traits i. The relatively enduring physical, mental and emotional characteristics of the leader. ii. Early research in leader traits was formulated on the belief that leaders were born, not made, and that you could identify leader traits early on and make sure those individual received the proper education, training, and jobs to ensure their appropriate future as leaders. iii. The more current view is that everyone has varying levels of necessary leadership traits, and that possession of them is not enough. It is how you use them that matters. The feeling is more that leaders can be made, they are not just born. iv. Among the traits that most contribute to leadership effectiveness are: drive, motivation to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, and emotional maturity. 1. These traits do not guarantee that an individual will become a leader or will lead effectively. The traits provide potential . 2. Few people possess high levels of each trait. v. Trait research has not considered the impact of culture to a great extent. ENHANCEMENT: Leadership Trait Theory Through Time Ancient Greece Classical Era (The Iliad of Homer) Leaders were decisive, physically strong and able, wily, loyal Plato’s Republic : The Ideal Leader in the Ideal City (5 th century BC) He viewed leaders at the time as cynical, power-hungry to fulfill their own goals, and manipulative. His ideal leaders would be wise, have knowledge of the abstract “good” that they would transform through deliberate action into good laws, good education, and the benefit of all. They were selfless and harmonizers. 201
13 th Century: Thomas Aquinas The leader is responsible for the development of virtue in his followers just as he is responsible for the provisions needed for their daily well-being. Leaders are teachers, providers and role models. 15 th -16 th Century: Machiavelli Machiavelli did not offer a view of utopian leaders, rather he offered down to earth advice on how to deal with building wealth in the real world.
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