Basing theories of personality development on the

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Basing theories of personality development on the retrospective accounts of adults Core Personality Traits -Openness to experiences vs. resistance to new experience -Conscientiousness vs. impulsivity -Extroversion vs. introversion -Agreeableness vs. antagonism -Neuroticism vs. emotional stability Heredity and Temperament Temperaments -Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways -Present in infancy, assumed to be innate -Relatively stable over time Includes -Reactivity -Soothability -Positive and negative emotionality Personality: a mixture of your temperament and what happens in your environment. Adults don’t have a temperament; they have a personality.
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Reciprocal Determinism Two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits The Power of Parents -The shared environment of the home has little influence on personality. -The non-shared environment is a more important influence. -Few parents have a single child-rearing style that is consistent over time and that they use with all children. -Even when parents try to be consistent, there may be little relation between what they do and how their children come out. The Power of Peers -Peers play a tremendous role in shaping our personality traits and behavior, causing us to emphasize some attributes or abilities and downplay others. -Our temperaments and dispositions also cause us to select particular peer groups (if they are available) instead of others, and our temperaments influence how we behave within the group. Abraham Maslow Humanistic Psychology -An approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential Peak Experiences -Rare moments of rapture caused by the attainment of excellence or the experience of beauty Self-actualization -Striving for a life that is meaningful, challenging, and satisfying
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Christopher Reinemann
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